Bethel Stannard

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The somatomedin hypothesis proposed that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was a hepatically derived circulating mediator of growth hormone and is a crucial factor for postnatal growth and development. To reassess this hypothesis, we have used the Cre/loxP recombination system to delete the igf1 gene exclusively in the liver. igf1 gene deletion in the(More)
Abnormalities in insulin action are the characteristics of type 2 diabetes. Dominant-negative muscle-specific IGF-I receptor (MKR) mice exhibit elevated lipid levels at an early age and eventually develop type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the role of elevated lipids in the progression of the diabetic state, MKR mice were treated with WY14,643, a peroxisome(More)
We studied the effects of genetic background on the phenotype of ob/ob mice, a model of severe obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes caused by leptin deficiency. Despite a comparable degree of obesity and hyperinsulinemia, C57BL/6J ob/ob mice had much milder hyperglycemia and, surprisingly, normal circulating adiponectin levels despite still-prominent(More)
The ability of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) 1 to suppress seizures and excitotoxic neuron damage was assessed in mice transgenically overexpressing this receptor. Fertilized eggs from FVB mice were injected with a construct containing SUR cDNA and a calcium-calmodulin kinase IIalpha promoter. The resulting mice showed normal gross anatomy, brain(More)
The proto-oncogene molecule c-Crk plays a role in growth factor-induced activation of Ras. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP), a metabolite of cellular sphingolipids, has previously been shown to play a role in growth factor receptor signaling (Olivera, A., and Spiegel, S. (1993) Nature 365, 557-560). SPP was found to strongly induce tyrosine phosphorylation of(More)
Several lines of evidence support an important role for the insulin-like growth factor system in breast cancer. Alterations in insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) have been associated with breast cancer metastasis; however, the specific role played by the IGF-IR in this process remains unclear. To address this issue, we evaluated MCF-7 breast(More)
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-I-R) gene is expressed in most body tissues. The levels of IGF-I-R mRNA, however, are regulated by a number of physiological conditions (development, differentiation, and hormonal milieu) as well as in certain pathological states (diabetes and tumors). To understand the molecular mechanisms which control the(More)
Liver IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice have a 75% reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels and, as a result, a fourfold increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion. To block GH action, LID mice were crossed with GH antagonist (GHa) transgenic mice. Inactivation of GH action in the resulting LID + GHa mice led to decreased blood glucose and insulin levels and improved(More)
The insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors are related heterotetramers consisting of two extracellular ligand-binding alpha-subunits and two transmembrane beta-subunits whose cytoplasmic domains exhibit tyrosine kinase activity. Previous studies have shown that ATP binding by the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains of these receptors is(More)
The Crk proto-oncogene product is an SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein which we have previously shown to become rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to stimulation with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in NIH-3T3 cells. In order to further characterize the role of Crk in the IGF-I signaling pathway, NIH-3T3 and 293 cells were stably(More)