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Partitioning locomotor metabolic rates into resting and locomotor components is a common practice that has both basic and applied value. Here, we evaluated the quantitative influence of the specific baseline value subtracted (quiet standing vs. resting metabolic rates) from the gross metabolic rates measured during walking. We quantified resting, standing(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the live 11-day chick embryo with special radiofrequency coils and 3-D imaging methods has produced contiguous 1.25-mm-thick slices with 200-microns pixel resolution, permitting definition of cardiac chambers, cerebral ventricles, spinal cord, liver, and lungs. It was the objective of this study to image younger chick(More)
Neural sites that interact with the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) to generate rhythms of unrestricted feeding remain unknown. We used the targeted toxin, leptin conjugated to saporin (Lep-SAP), to examine the importance of leptin receptor-B (LepR-B)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) for generation of circadian feeding rhythms. Rats given Arc(More)
Magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy was used to noninvasively investigate the development of live rat embryos in utero. The difficulty in making sequential observations of a developing mammalian embryo has frustrated developmental biologists for many years. Most current technologies analyze normal and abnormal development by observing end point phenotypes(More)
Techniques are described to perform three dimensional (3D) MR microangiography. We have combined the use of a blood pool agent (Gd-DTPA-complexed with bovine serum albumin), three dimensional Fourier encoding, careful animal stabilization, and volume rendering to permit imaging with voxels of 60 x 60 x 60 microns. 3DFT encoding has been performed at 7.1 T(More)
We formulated a "one-size-fits-all" model that predicts the energy requirements of level human walking from height, weight, and walking speed. Our three-component model theorizes that the energy expended per kilogram per stride is independent of stature at mechanically equivalent walking speeds. We measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake of 78 subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE External reference points, particularly Kirschner pins (K-wire), placed in the region of the nasion have been shown to improve the accuracy of maxillary vertical repositioning. Although no complications associated with this technique have been reported, there is a potential for injury to the anterior cranial fossa or frontal sinus. The purpose of(More)
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