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Clinical and experimental work indicate that a variety of factors contribute to radicular pain mechanisms, including mechanical injury. While it has been qualitatively suggested that the magnitude of nerve root mechanical injury affects the nature of the pain response, no study has quantified the local in vivo injury biomechanics in these models. Therefore,(More)
STUDY DESIGN An in vivo rat model of transient cervical nerve root compression. OBJECTIVES To investigate the potential for cervical nerve root compression to produce behavioral hypersensitivity and examine its dependence on compression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Clinically, nerve root injury has been hypothesized as a potential source of neck pain,(More)
Clinical, epidemiological, and biomechanical studies suggest involvement of cervical facet joint injuries in neck pain. While bony motions can cause injurious tensile facet joint loading, it remains speculative whether such injuries initiate pain. There is currently a paucity of data explicitly investigating the relationship between facet mechanics and pain(More)
While extensive research points to mechanical injury of the cervical facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, findings remain speculative regarding its potential for causing pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between facet joint distraction, capsular ligament strain, cellular nociceptive responses, and pain. A novel rat(More)
The cervical facet joint and its capsule have been reported to be injured during whiplash scenarios and are a common source of chronic neck pain from whiplash. Both the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and the excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) have pivotal roles in chronic pain. In this study, spinal mGluR5 and EAAC1 were quantified(More)
The specific mechanisms by which nervous system injury becomes a chronic pain state remain undetermined. Historically, it has been believed that injuries proximal or distal to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) produce distinct pathologies that manifest in different severity of symptoms. This study investigated the role of injury site relative to the DRG in (1)(More)
The cervical facet joint is implicated as one of the most common sources of chronic neck pain, owing to its rich nociceptive innervation and susceptibility to injurious mechanical loading. Injuries to the facet joint and its ligament can induce inflammation in the joint and spinal cord. Inflammatory molecules which are known to have a role in pain can also(More)
Nerve root compression induces persistent behavioral hypersensitivity and spinal glial reactivity. Viscoelastic properties of neural tissues suggest that physiologic outcomes may depend on the duration of an applied nerve root compression. This study evaluated the time-dependent properties of the root under compression in the context of pain-related(More)
Chronic neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders in the US. Although biomechanical and clinical studies have implicated the facet joint as a primary source of neck pain, specific cellular mechanisms still remain speculative. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a mediator (activating transcription factor; 4ATF4) of the(More)
Cervical nerve root injury commonly leads to radicular pain. Normal sensation relies on regulation of extracellular glutamate in the spinal cord by glutamate transporters. The goal of this study was to define the temporal response of spinal glutamate transporters (glial glutamate transporter 1 [GLT-1], glutamate-aspartate transporter [GLAST], and excitatory(More)