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BACKGROUND Cost-effectiveness analysis can guide policymakers in resource allocation decisions. It assesses whether the health gains offered by an intervention are large enough relative to any additional costs to warrant adoption. When there are constraints on the health care system's budget or ability to increase expenditures, additional costs imposed by(More)
BACKGROUND Data on survival endpoints are usually summarised using either hazard ratio, cumulative number of events, or median survival statistics. Network meta-analysis, an extension of traditional pairwise meta-analysis, is typically based on a single statistic. In this case, studies which do not report the chosen statistic are excluded from the analysis(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the importance of considering all relevant indirect data in a network meta-analysis of treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS A recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence appraisal focussed on the indirect comparison of docetaxel with erlotinib in second-line treatment of NSCLC based on trials(More)
OBJECTIVE To document the smoking practices of Aboriginal mothers living in Perth during pregnancy and during the subsequent year while feeding their infants. METHOD A cohort of mothers was followed from the time of delivery for 12 months to obtain details of infant feeding practices. A total of 455 mothers delivered between May 2000 and July 2001 and 425(More)
BACKGROUND Indirect evidence is particularly valuable in health care decision making when direct trial evidence comparing relevant treatments is absent or limited. Current approaches using a predetermined set of comparators in the search query may fail to identify all relevant indirect evidence. PURPOSE To present a framework for the efficient design of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bendamustine-rituximab (B-R) compared with CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, rituximab) and CVP-R (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, rituximab) as first-line treatment for patients with advanced indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). METHODS A patient-level simulation(More)
OBJECTIVES To demonstrate how value of information (VOI) analysis can be used to establish research priorities regarding the use of pharmacogenetic tests using CYP2D6 testing to select adjuvant hormonal therapy in early stage breast cancer as a case study. METHODS The following four treatment pathways are compared in a Markov model: tamoxifen treatment;(More)
BACKGROUND Network meta-analysis methods, which are an extension of the standard pair-wise synthesis framework, allow for the simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions and consideration of the entire body of evidence in a single statistical model. There are well-established advantages to using individual patient data to perform network meta-analysis(More)
Health systems worldwide are facing difficult choices about the use of a series of highly effective but costly new treatments for hepatitis C. In this paper we discuss how the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales, the Common Drug Review in Canada and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) in Australia have(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronisation therapy pacemakers (CRT-Ps) and combination therapy (CRT-D) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction based on a range of clinical characteristics. METHODS Individual patient data from 13 randomised trials were used(More)