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BACKGROUND/AIMS End-stage liver disease accounts for one in forty deaths worldwide. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well-recognized risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer, but estimates of their contributions to worldwide disease burden have been lacking. METHODS The prevalence of serologic markers of(More)
Worldwide, two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 360 million have chronic infection, and 600,000 die each year from HBV-related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma. This comprehensive review of hepatitis B epidemiology and vaccines focuses on definitive and influential studies and highlights current trends, policies, and(More)
Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex(More)
BACKGROUND Limited data are available regarding global hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related morbidity and mortality and potential reduction in disease burden from hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS A model was developed to calculate the age-specific risk of acquiring HBV infection, acute hepatitis B (illness and death), and progression to chronic HBV infection.(More)
This report is the first of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) that updates the strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in the United States. The report provides updated recommendations to improve prevention of perinatal and early childhood HBV transmission, including implementation of(More)
BACKGROUND Our objective was to assess trends in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States after widespread hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS The prevalence of HBV infection and immunity was determined in a representative sample of the US population for the periods 1999-2006 and 1988-1994. National Health and Nutrition(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the source of and describe a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Washington State. DESIGN Case-control study; environmental investigation; provider-based surveillance for E coli O157:H7 infections. SETTING Chain of fast-food restaurants, hospitals, physician offices, local laboratories, and local health(More)
To calculate the burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in the United States, we extrapolated from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program laboratory-confirmed hospitalizations across the entire United States, and then corrected for underreporting. From 12 April 2009 to 10 April 2010, we estimate that approximately(More)
This report provides recommendations for use of the newly licensed hepatitis A vaccines (HAVRIX, manufactured by SmithKline Beecham Biologicals, and VAQTA, manufactured by Merck & Company, Inc.) in persons > or = 2 years of age and updates previous recommendations for use of immune globulin (IG) for protection against hepatitis A (superseding MMWR(More)
We performed a cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified between December 1998 and December 2000 in the Chronic Liver Disease Surveillance Study. We compared the demographic and clinical features of NAFLD in a racially diverse representative U.S. population (Alameda County, CA). Diagnostic criteria(More)