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A diverse array of infectious agents, including prions and certain neurotropic viruses, bind to the laminin receptor (LR), and this determines tropism to the CNS. Bacterial meningitis in childhood is almost exclusively caused by the respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae, but the mechanism by(More)
The rlrA pilus locus of Streptococcus pneumoniae is an example of a pathogenicity island acquired through genetic recombination. Many acquired genetic elements commandeer preexisting networks of the new organism for transcriptional regulation. We hypothesized that the rlrA locus has integrated into transcriptional regulatory networks controlling expression(More)
Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Thus far, no sRNA has been assigned a definitive role in virulence in the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the potential coding capacity of intergenic regions, we hypothesized that the pneumococcus produces many sRNAs and that they(More)
The Osteosarcoma Surveillance Study, an ongoing 15-year surveillance study initiated in 2003, is a postmarketing commitment to the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration to evaluate a potential association between teriparatide, rhPTH(1-34), a recombinant human parathyroid hormone analog (self-injectable medication to treat osteoporosis), and(More)
Hospitalization of the elderly for invasive pneumococcal disease is frequently accompanied by the occurrence of an adverse cardiac event; these are primarily new or worsened heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. Herein, we describe previously unrecognized microscopic lesions (microlesions) formed within the myocardium of mice, rhesus macaques, and humans(More)
Members of the choline binding protein (Cbp) family are noncovalently bound to phosphorylcholine residues on the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It has been suggested that CbpG plays a role in adherence and increase virulence both at the mucosal surface and in the bloodstream, but the function of this protein has been unclear. A new sequence analysis(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a significant health threat worldwide, especially to the young and old. While some of the biomolecules involved in pneumococcal pathogenesis are known and understood in mechanistic terms, little is known about the molecular details of bacterium/host interactions. We report here the solution structure of the(More)
Immunization with the pneumococcal proteins pneumolysin (Ply), choline binding protein A (CbpA), or pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) elicits protective responses against invasive pneumococcal disease in animal models. In this study, we used different mouse models to test the efficacy of a variety of multivalent protein-based vaccines that comprised(More)
Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the fetus, including postnatal cognitive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are obscure. We find that bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (CW), a universal PAMP for TLR2, traverses the murine placenta into the developing fetal brain. In contrast to adults, CW-exposed fetal(More)
Across bacterial species, metal binding proteins can serve functions in pathogenesis in addition to regulating metal homeostasis. We have compared and contrasted the activities of zinc (Zn2+)-binding lipoproteins AdcA and AdcAII in the Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 background. Exposure to Zn2+-limiting conditions resulted in delayed growth in a strain(More)