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The conservation status of 845 zooxanthellate reef-building coral species was assessed by using International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Criteria. Of the 704 species that could be assigned conservation status, 32.8% are in categories with elevated risk of extinction. Declines in abundance are associated with bleaching and diseases driven by(More)
Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and(More)
Extinction risk has been linked to biological and anthropogenic variables. Prediction of extinction risk in valuable fauna may not follow mainstream drivers when species are exploited for international markets. We use results from an International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessment of extinction risk in all 377 known species of sea(More)
T here is growing concern that in spite of the healthy status of several epipelagic (living near the surface) fi sh stocks ( 1), some scombrid (tunas, bonitos, mackerels, and Spanish mackerels) and billfi sh (swordfi sh and marlins) species are heavily overfi shed and that there is a lack of resolve to protect against overexploitation driven by high prices(More)
Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and(More)
Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) provide an informative and cost-effective approach for monitoring contaminants in remote tropical streams. Estimation and interpretation of contaminant concentrations in streams derived from SPMDs can vary based on a number of environmental factors, including stream flow, biofouling, and deployment time. In three(More)
Over the past two decades, various organizations have promoted cacao agroforestry systems as a tool for biodiversity conservation in the Bribri-Cabécar indigenous territories of Talamanca, Costa Rica. Despite these efforts, cacao production is declining and is being replaced by less diverse systems that have lower biodiversity value. Understanding the(More)
Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to(More)
The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic(More)
Parrotfishes and surgeonfishes perform important functional roles in the dynamics of coral reef systems. This is a consequence of their varied feeding behaviors ranging from targeted consumption of living plant material (primarily surgeonfishes) to feeding on detrital aggregates that are either scraped from the reef surface or excavated from the deeper reef(More)