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Denitrification in the ocean is a major sink for fixed nitrogen in the global N budget, but the process is geographically restricted to a few oceanic regions, including three oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) and hemipelagic sediments worldwide. Here, we describe the diversity and community composition of microbes responsible for denitrification in the OMZ(More)
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has recently been recognized as a pathway for the removal of fixed N from aquatic ecosystems. However, the quantitative significance of anammox in estuarine sediments is variable, and measurements have been limited to a few estuaries. We measured anammox and conventional denitrification activities in sediments along(More)
Primary production in over half of the world's oceans is limited by fixed nitrogen availability. The main loss term from the fixed nitrogen inventory is the production of dinitrogen gas (N(2)) by heterotrophic denitrification or the more recently discovered autotrophic process, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are(More)
The PCR was used as the basis for the development of a sensitive and specific assay for the detection of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the beta-subclass of the class Proteobacteria. PCR primers were selected on the basis of nucleic acid sequence data available for seven species of nitrifiers in this subclass. The specificity of the ammonium(More)
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from filtered water samples throughout the water column of Mono Lake, California. Ammonia-oxidizing members of the beta subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (beta-subdivision Proteobacteria) were detected using previously characterized PCR primers; target sequences were(More)
The presence of a copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene (nirK) was discovered in several isolates of beta-subdivision ammonia-oxidizing bacteria using PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR primers Cunir3 and Cunir4 were designed based on published nirK sequences from denitrifying bacteria and used to amplify a 540-bp fragment of the nirK gene from(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are climatically important trace gases that are produced by both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In the denitrification pathway, N2O is produced from nitric oxide (NO) by the enzyme nitric oxide reductase (NOR). The ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea also possesses a functional nitric oxide(More)
Methyl fluoride (CH(3)F) and dimethyl ether (DME) inhibited nitrification in washed-cell suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea and in a variety of oxygenated soils and sediments. Headspace additions of CH(3)F (10% [vol/vol]) and DME (25% [vol/vol]) fully inhibited NO(2) and N(2)O production from NH(4) in incubations of N. europaea, while lower concentrations(More)
Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third(More)
In oceanic, coastal, and estuarine environments, an average of 25 to 41 percent of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH(4) (+) and NO(3) (-)) taken up by phytoplankton is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Release rates for DON in oceanic systems range from 4 to 26 nanogram-atoms of nitrogen per liter per hour. Failure to account for the(More)