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The X1A soft X-ray undulator beamline at the NSLS has been rebuilt to serve two microscopy stations operating simultaneously. Separate spherical-grating monochromators provide the resolving power required for XANES spectroscopy at the C, N and O absorption edges. The exit slits are fixed and define the coherent source for the experiments. The optical design(More)
APPROVED BY SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: This dissertation is dedicated to my family. I wish especially to acknowledge my mother, Dr. Sara Thompson Throop; her fortitude in completing her own dissertation when I was a youth set my steps on the path towards doctoral work. I wish also to recognize my father, William Rutherford Throop; his lifelong love of biology(More)
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