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In 1997, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) led an effort to revise and expand the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) with the goal of integrating systemic agent, radiation, and surgical criteria into a comprehensive and standardized system. Representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) participated in this process in an effort to improve(More)
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic(More)
BACKGROUND Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified in 1994 and 1995, respectively, to the authors' knowledge the optimal management of women with BRCA-associated breast carcinoma remains incompletely defined. The current study evaluates the appropriateness of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) in women with BRCA mutations. METHODS Between May 1992 and(More)
BACKGROUND Emergency laparotomies in the U.K., U.S.A. and Denmark are known to have a high risk of death, with accompanying evidence of suboptimal care. The emergency laparotomy pathway quality improvement care (ELPQuiC) bundle is an evidence-based care bundle for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy, consisting of: initial assessment with early warning(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether there is a benefit to adjuvant radiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery and tamoxifen in women age ≥ 70 years with early-stage breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between July 1994 and February 1999, 636 women (age ≥ 70 years) who had clinical stage I (T1N0M0 according to TNM classification) estrogen receptor (ER)(More)
BACKGROUND In women 70 years of age or older who have early breast cancer, it is unclear whether lumpectomy plus tamoxifen is as effective as lumpectomy followed by tamoxifen plus radiation therapy. METHODS Between July 1994 and February 1999, we randomly assigned 636 women who were 70 years of age or older and who had clinical stage I (T1N0M0 according(More)
PURPOSE In patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery, randomized trials have found little difference in local control and survival outcomes between patients treated with conventionally fractionated (CF-) whole breast irradiation (WBI) and those receiving hypofractionated (HF)-WBI. However, it remains controversial(More)
Chest wall irradiation is becoming increasingly common for mastectomy patients who have opted for immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and implants. The optimal approach for such patients has not yet been defined. This study assesses the outcomes of a reconstruction protocol for patients who require irradiation after tissue expander/implant(More)
BACKGROUND Breast reconstruction with tissue expander (TE)/permanent implant (PI) followed by postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) is an increasingly popular treatment for breast cancer patients. The long-term rates of permanent implant removal or replacement (PIRR) and clinical outcomes in patients treated with a uniform reconstructive surgery and radiation(More)
PURPOSE To determine the 15-year outcome for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, intraductal carcinoma) of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery followed by definitive breast irradiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS An analysis was performed of 270 intraductal breast carcinomas in 268 women from 10 institutions in Europe and the United States.(More)