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Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defence systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA interference (RNAi) mediates antiviral immunity. However,(More)
How persistent viral infections are established and maintained is widely debated and remains poorly understood. We found here that the persistence of RNA viruses in Drosophila melanogaster was achieved through the combined action of cellular reverse-transcriptase activity and the RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) pathway. Fragments of diverse RNA viruses(More)
Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected(More)
Persistent infection is a situation of metastability in which the pathogen and the host coexist. A common outcome for viral infections, persistence is a widespread phenomenon through all kingdoms. With a clear benefit for the virus and/or the host at the population level, persistent infections act as modulators of the ecosystem. The origin of persistence(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is the essential component of antiviral immunity in invertebrates and plants. One of the landmarks of the antiviral RNAi response is the production of virus-derived small interfering RNA (vsiRNA) from viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). vsiRNAs constitute a fragmented image of the viral genome sequence that results from Dicer(More)
Figure S1: Sindbis-GFP infection of Drosophila melanogaster. (a) Genome organization of Sindbis-GFP recombinant virus. dsRNA used against two different regions of the nonstructural proteins (dsSin1 and dsSin2) are indicated. (b) Intensities of GFP fluorescence per group of injected flies. Flies in each group were CO2anesthetized and imaged. Images were(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells and thus, cellular homeostasis. In addition, in plants, nematodes and arthropods it is a central antiviral effector mechanism. Antiviral RNAi has been well described as a cell autonomous response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. This dsRNA is the precursor for(More)
Tunnelling nanotubes and cytonemes function as highways for the transport of organelles, cytosolic and membrane-bound molecules, and pathogens between cells. During viral infection in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a systemic RNAi antiviral response is established presumably through the transport of a silencing signal from one cell to another(More)
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