Bertrand Sudre

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418 POLICYFORUM I n recent years, we have seen transmission of traditionally " tropical " diseases in continental Europe: chikungunya fever (CF) in Italy in 2007, large outbreaks of West Nile fever in Greece and Romania in 2010, and the fi rst local transmission of dengue fever in France and Croatia in 2010 (1– 3). These events support the notion that(More)
BACKGROUND Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and(More)
BACKGROUND During the last eight years, North and South Kivu, located in a lake area in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, have been the site of a major volcano eruption and of numerous complex emergencies with population displacements. These conditions have been suspected to favour emergence and spread of cholera epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya almost every year since 1977-1978, when the disease emerged in these countries. We used a multiscale, geographic information system-based approach to assess the link between cholera outbreaks, climate, and environmental variables. We performed(More)
BACKGROUND The worldwide distribution of dengue is expanding, in part due to globalized traffic and trade. Aedes albopictus is a competent vector for dengue viruses (DENV) and is now established in numerous regions of Europe. Viremic travellers arriving in Europe from dengue-affected areas of the world can become catalysts of local outbreaks in Europe.(More)
We studied the epidemiology of cholera in Katanga and Eastern Kasai, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, by compiling a database including all cases recorded from 2000 through 2005. Results show that lakes were the sources of outbreaks and demonstrate the inadequacy of the strategy used to combat cholera.
BACKGROUND West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen of global public health importance. Transmission of WNV is determined by abiotic and biotic factors. The objective of this study was to examine environmental variables as predictors of WNV risk in Europe and neighboring countries, considering the anomalies of remotely sensed water and vegetation(More)
Europe is increasingly at risk of the emergence of tropical diseases that are more commonly associated with warmer climates [1]. In 2010, Southeastern Eu-rope witnessed an upsurge in West Nile fever cases that was strongly associated with excessive heat waves that had occurred in the preceding weeks [2]. France sustained its first autochthonous dengue(More)
Since June 2012, 133 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases have been identified in nine countries. Two time periods in 2013 were compared to identify changes in the epidemiology. The case-fatality risk (CFR) is 45% and is decreasing. Men have a higher CFR (52%) and are over-represented among cases. Thirteen out of 14 known primary(More)
BACKGROUND Pollinosis is found more frequently in urban areas than in rural environments. This could be partly related to the different types of pollen exposure in these dissimilar areas. The objective of this study was to compare the distribution of pollen in these environments across an urbanization gradient. METHODS Daily pollen abundances were(More)