Bertrand Hirel

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 The metabolic, biochemical and molecular events occurring during tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf ageing are presented, with a particular emphasis on nitrogen metabolism. An integrated model describing the source/sink relationship existing between leaves of different developmental stages along the main plant axis is proposed. The results of our study show(More)
To study the genetic variability and the genetic basis of nitrogen (N) use efficiency in maize, a set of recombinant inbred lines crossed with a tester was studied at low input (N-) and high input (N+) for grain yield and its components, grain protein content, and post-anthesis nitrogen uptake and remobilization. Other physiological traits, such as nitrate(More)
The roles of two cytosolic maize glutamine synthetase isoenzymes (GS1), products of the Gln1-3 and Gln1-4 genes, were investigated by examining the impact of knockout mutations on kernel yield. In the gln1-3 and gln1-4 single mutants and the gln1-3 gln1-4 double mutant, GS mRNA expression was impaired, resulting in reduced GS1 protein and activity. The(More)
The objective of this study was to map and characterize QTLs for traits related to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE), grain N yield, N-remobilization and post-silking N-uptake. Furthermore, to examine whether QTLs detected with recombinant inbred lines (RILs) crossed to a tester are common to those detected with line per se evaluation, both types of(More)
To enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of nitrogen use efficiency in maize (Zea mays), we have developed a quantitative genetic approach by associating metabolic functions and agronomic traits to DNA markers. In this study, leaves of vegetative recombinant inbred lines of maize, already assessed for their agronomic performance, were analyzed for(More)
Chloroplastic glutamine synthetase from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Xanthi) was purified to homogeneity. By using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, a single subunit was identified with a molecular weight of 45,000 daltons. However the native protein seems to be composed of four(More)
To better understand the genetic variability for nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat is a necessity in the frame of the present economic and ecological context. The objective of this work was to investigate the role of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and other nitrogen (N)-related physiological traits in the(More)
 Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyses the formation of glutamine (a major form of nitrogen transport in plants) in an ATP-dependent reaction using ammonium and glutamate. This enzyme is present in the plastids and/or in the cytosol depending on the plant or the organ examined. In order to understand the role of GS isoforms in the remobilization of leaf(More)
The impact of increased plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS-2; EC activity on foliar amino-acid levels and on biomass production was examined in transgenic tobacco. For that, tobacco was transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a binary vector containing a tobacco GS-2 cDNA downstream of the leaf-specific soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate(More)
We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wheat GS sub-families(More)