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Studies in invertebrates have led to the identification of a number of genes that regulate lifespan, some of which encode components of the insulin or insulin-like signalling pathways. Examples include the related tyrosine kinase receptors InR (Drosophila melanogaster) and DAF-2 (Caenorhabditis elegans) that are homologues of the mammalian insulin-like(More)
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a major regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates. Both ligands (IGF-I and IGF-II) signal via the same IGF receptor (IGF-IR). Classical IGF-IR invalidation is lethal at birth, so that conditional models are needed to study the postnatal role of this receptor. To establish a genetically inducible invalidation(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the envelope proteins of a murine and primate retrovirus are immunosuppressive in vivo. This property was manifested by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to have the env-expressing cells escape (at least transiently) immune rejection. Here, we(More)
Reduced IGF type I receptor levels diminish postnatal growth rate and adult body weight in mice. Here, we studied the impact of experimental IGF receptor deficiency on tissue-specific growth by Cre-lox-mediated dosage of a floxed IGF-IR gene. We generated mice with a wide spectrum of receptor deficiency (5-82%), and separated them into two groups with(More)
Chronic renal failure in childhood causes severe growth retardation. The aim of the study was to identify whether changes in the IGF system could account for the growth retardation observed in children with chronic renal failure. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) serum concentrations, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) and/or IGF-I binding(More)
Tumor development is a multistep process in which both genetic and epigenetic events cooperate for the emergence of a malignant clone. The possibility that endogenous retroviruses promote the expansion of a neoplastic clone by subverting immune surveillance has been proposed, but remained elusive. Here we show that knocking down-by RNA interference-an(More)
The effects of the selective CCK-B agonists, BC 264 and BC 197, and the nonselective CCK agonist BDNL were investigated in the elevated plus-maze in rats. BDNL and BC 197 induced anxiogeniclike effects, in contrast to BC 264, which had no effect. The behavioral responses induced by BDNL were not significantly blocked by L-365,260, but were suppressed by(More)
We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins (Envs). The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was manifested by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently,(More)
Alterations of chromatin modifiers are frequent in cancer, but their functional consequences often remain unclear. Focusing on the Polycomb protein EZH2 that deposits the H3K27me3 (trimethylation of Lys27 of histone H3) mark, we showed that its high expression in solid tumors is a consequence, not a cause, of tumorigenesis. In mouse and human models, EZH2(More)
1. The effects induced in rats on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome by the new mixed inhibitor of enkephalin catabolism able to cross the blood-brain barrier RB 101 (N-((R,S)-2-benzyl-3[(S)(2-amino-4-methylthio)butyl dithio]-1-ox-opropyl-L-phenylalanine benzyl ester) given alone or associated with the selective CCKB antagonist, PD-134,308,(More)