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BACKGROUND Observational studies suggest that male circumcision may provide protection against HIV-1 infection. A randomized, controlled intervention trial was conducted in a general population of South Africa to test this hypothesis. METHODS AND FINDINGS A total of 3,274 uncircumcised men, aged 18-24 y, were randomized to a control or an intervention(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) by age and gender among young people aged 14--24 years in a South African town and to identify risk factors for HIV infection. DESIGN A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of men (n = 723) and women (n = 784) living in a township in the(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to explore whether the differences in rate of spread of HIV in different regions in sub-Saharan Africa could be explained by differences in sexual behaviour and/or factors influencing the probability of HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in(More)
BACKGROUND A randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that male circumcision (MC) reduces sexual transmission of HIV from women to men by 60% (32%-76%; 95% CI) offering an intervention of proven efficacy for reducing the sexual spread of HIV. We explore the implications of this finding for the promotion of MC as a public health intervention to control(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify factors that could explain differences in rate of spread of HIV between different regions in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS The study took place in two cities with a relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaoundé, Cameroon), and two cities with a high HIV prevalence (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola,(More)
BACKGROUND Rates of condom use in sub-Saharan Africa have remained too low to curb HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemics. A better understanding of the main determinants of condom use would aid promotion. METHODS Cross-sectional population surveys were conducted in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa: Yaoundé, Cameroon; Cotonou, Benin; Ndola,(More)
The study aims to investigate the potential for an intervention based on male circumcision in a South African town with a high level of HIV infection. It draws on two cross-sectional studies conducted in August 2000 among a sample of 606 male adults aged 13-59 years, and in August 1999 among a sample of 723 male youth aged 14-24 years. A qualitative study(More)
BACKGROUND Consistent with observational studies, a randomized controlled intervention trial of adult male circumcision (MC) conducted in the general population in Orange Farm (OF) (Gauteng Province, South Africa) demonstrated a protective effect against HIV acquisition of 60%. The objective of this study is to present the first cost-effectiveness analysis(More)
BACKGROUND In 1998, a major HIV intervention project was started in a mining community in Carletonville, South Africa. This included community-based peer education, condom distribution, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and presumptive STI treatment for sex workers. OBJECTIVES To investigate changes in sexual behaviour and the(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate parameters of concurrent sexual partnerships in five urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa and to assess their association with levels of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). METHODS Data were obtained from a multicentre study of factors which determine the differences in rate of spread of HIV in five(More)