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We used cryoelectron tomography to reveal the arrangements of photosystem II (PSII) and ATP synthase in vitreous sections of intact chloroplasts and plunge-frozen suspensions of isolated thylakoid membranes. We found that stroma and grana thylakoids are connected at the grana margins by staggered lamellar membrane protrusions. The stacking repeat of grana(More)
We used electron cryotomography to study the molecular arrangement of large respiratory chain complexes in mitochondria from bovine heart, potato, and three types of fungi. Long rows of ATP synthase dimers were observed in intact mitochondria and cristae membrane fragments of all species that were examined. The dimer rows were found exclusively on tightly(More)
For more than half a century, electron microscopy has been a main tool for investigating the complex ultrastructure and organization of chloroplast thylakoid membranes, but, even today, the three-dimensional relationship between stroma and grana thylakoids, and the arrangement of the membrane protein complexes within them are not fully understood. Electron(More)
Viruses have developed a wide range of strategies to escape from the host cells in which they replicate. For egress some archaeal viruses use a pyramidal structure with sevenfold rotational symmetry. Virus-associated pyramids (VAPs) assemble in the host cell membrane from the virus-encoded protein PVAP and open at the end of the infection cycle. We(More)
A decisive step in a virus infection cycle is the recognition of a specific receptor present on the host cell surface, subsequently leading to the delivery of the viral genome into the cell interior. Until now, the early stages of infection have not been thoroughly investigated for any virus infecting hyperthermophilic archaea. Here, we present the first(More)
The majority of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from gram-negative bacteria and many of mitochondria and chloroplasts are β-barrels. Insertion and assembly of these proteins are catalyzed by the Omp85 protein family in a seemingly conserved process. All members of this family exhibit a characteristic N-terminal polypeptide-transport-associated (POTRA) and a(More)
Aging is one of the most fundamental, yet least understood biological processes that affect all forms of eukaryotic life. Mitochondria are intimately involved in aging, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Electron cryotomography of whole mitochondria from the aging model organism Podospora anserina revealed profound age-dependent(More)
Cyclophilin D (CYPD) is a mitochondrial peptidyl prolyl-cis,trans-isomerase involved in opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). CYPD abundance increases during aging in mammalian tissues and in the aging model organism Podospora anserina. Here, we show that treatment of the P. anserina wild-type with low concentrations of the(More)
Electron cryo-tomography is a powerful tool in structural biology, capable of visualizing the three-dimensional structure of biological samples, such as cells, organelles, membrane vesicles, or viruses at molecular detail. To achieve this, the aqueous sample is rapidly vitrified in liquid ethane, which preserves it in a close-to-native, frozen-hydrated(More)
The uncultivated "Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum" (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon) carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks ("hami") on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were(More)