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Four adenosine receptors have been cloned and characterized from several mammalian species. The receptors are named adenosine A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3). The A(2A) and A(2B) receptors preferably interact with members of the G(s) family of G proteins and the A(1) and A(3) receptors with G(i/o) proteins. However, other G protein interactions have also been(More)
Caffeine is believed to act by blocking adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors (A(1)R, A(2A)R), indicating that some A(1) receptors are tonically activated. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the second coding exon of the A(1)R (A(1)R(-/-)). These animals bred and gained weight normally and had a normal heart rate, blood pressure, and body(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that antagonistic interactions between specific subtypes of adenosine and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are involved in the motor depressant effects of adenosine receptor agonists and the motor stimulant effects of adenosine receptor antagonists, such as caffeine. The GABAergic striatopallidal neurons are regulated by(More)
Dopamine D(1), dopamine D(2), and adenosine A(2A) receptors are highly expressed in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons. We have examined, in vivo, the influence of these receptors on the state of phosphorylation of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32). DARPP-32 is a potent endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, which(More)
Caffeine, a component of tea, coffee and cola, induces wakefulness. It binds to adenosine A1 and A2A receptors as an antagonist, but the receptor subtype mediating caffeine-induced wakefulness remains unclear. Here we report that caffeine at 5, 10 and 15 mg kg(-1) increased wakefulness in both wild-type mice and A1 receptor knockout mice, but not in A2A(More)
In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine(More)
Since high-affinity adenosine A2 receptors (A2a) are localized exclusively in dopamine-rich regions in the central nervous system and mediate inhibition of locomotor activity, we have examined the effect of A2a receptor activation on D1 and D2 receptor binding in membrane preparations of the rat striatum. The A2a agonist(More)
Adenosine tonically inhibits synaptic transmission through actions at A(1) receptors. It also facilitates synaptic transmission, but it is unclear if this facilitation results from pre- and/or postsynaptic A(2A) receptor activation or from indirect control of inhibitory GABAergic transmission. The A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (10 nM), facilitated(More)