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Phantom perception refers to the conscious awareness of a percept in the absence of an external stimulus. On the basis of basic neuroscience on perception and clinical research in phantom pain and phantom sound, we propose a working model for their origin. Sensory deafferentation results in high-frequency, gamma band, synchronized neuronal activity in the(More)
Activation-dependent brain plasticity in humans on a structural level has been demonstrated in adults after 3 months of training a visio-motor skill. The exact timescale of usage-dependent structural changes, whether days, months, or years, is, however, still debated. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help elucidate to what extent this(More)
Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a frequent disorder that causes significant morbidity. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in tinnitus generation are still under exploration. Electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies give increasing evidence for abnormal functioning both within the central auditory system and in(More)
There is widespread recognition that consistency between research centres in the ways that patients with tinnitus are assessed and outcomes following interventions are measured would facilitate more effective co-operation and more meaningful evaluations and comparisons of outcomes. At the first Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting held in Regensburg in July(More)
Tinnitus is a considered to be an auditory phantom phenomenon, a persistent conscious percept of a salient memory trace, externally attributed, in the absence of a sound source. It is perceived as a phenomenological unified coherent percept, binding multiple separable clinical characteristics, such as its loudness, the sidedness, the type (pure tone,(More)
A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety(More)
Subjective tinnitus is characterized by an auditory phantom perception in the absence of any physical sound source. Consequently, in a quiet environment, tinnitus patients differ from control participants because they constantly perceive a sound whereas controls do not. We hypothesized that this difference is expressed by differential activation of(More)
Reproductive behavior is mandatory for conservation of species and mediated by a state of sexual arousal (SA), involving both complex mental processes and bodily reactions. An early neurobehavioral model of SA proposes cognitive, emotional, motivational, and autonomic components. In a comprehensive quantitative meta-analysis on previous neuroimaging(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides an intriguing in vivo method to investigate motor cortex excitability in men. This offers new insights into the neurophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Earlier TMS studies in patients with schizophrenia revealed inconsistent results, probably due to major confounding variables like state of(More)
Cerebral (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has shown altered auditory pathway activity in tinnitus. However, the corresponding studies involved only small samples and analyses were restricted to the auditory cortex in most studies. Evidence is growing that also limbic, frontal, and parietal areas are involved in the pathophysiology(More)