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Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1(More)
The reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes from 12 human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected individuals who had been exposed to antiretroviral drugs for longer than 6 months were examined for the presence of mutations which could be involved in drug resistance. Four individuals carried virus genotypes with amino acid substitutions(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TDF) is an adenosine nucleotide analogue that has been approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It also shows activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with or without lamivudine (LAM)-associated mutations. Development of clinical or virological HBV breakthrough during TDF therapy has not been reported so far. The aim(More)
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether resistance to immunologic damage in long-term non-progressors (LTNP) will last indefinitely or whether it merely represents the extreme of a Gaussian distribution, and therefore progression will occur eventually. PATIENTS AND METHODS A cohort of 19 LTNP was established in 1997. Plasma viraemia and CD4 cell counts were(More)
BACKGROUND Current protease inhibitors (PIs) are designed against HIV-1, and information on their performance against HIV-2 clinical isolates is scarce. METHODS Genetic and phenotypic analyses using all available PIs were performed in five HIV-2 primary isolates from two patients on regular follow-up who failed PI-HAART. RESULTS HIV-2 proteases before(More)
BACKGROUND Raltegravir has been shown to be active against wildtype HIV-2 with a phenotypic susceptibility similar to HIV-1. Due to the recent introduction of these novel inhibitors, information on the selection of resistance mutations and its phenotypic effect in this population is scarce. OBJECTIVES To explore in vitro the effect of raltegravir(More)
Interleukin 17 (IL17) secreting T (Th17) cells play a protective role against bacterial infections at mucosal surfaces. Recent reports show Th17 cells are depleted in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of HIV+ patients, but their role in HIV disease progression is not well understood. Expression of the IL17 receptor (IL17R) and the production of IL17 were(More)
INTRODUCTION In HIV-positive individuals, complex multifactorial mechanisms control viral infection. In addition to viral and immunological factors, the host genetic background also plays an important role. Our objective was to evaluate how various genetic factors associated with delayed AIDS onset. METHODS Thirty HIV+ long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and(More)
Enfuvirtide (ENF) is the first of a novel class of drugs that blocks HIV fusion to host cells. We analyzed the dynamics of genotypic and phenotypic resistance to ENF during and after long-term ENF therapy and its clinical implications in eight heavily treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who underwent salvage therapy with enfuvirtide along with other(More)
Genetic sequence alignment of the transmembrane region from HIV-1 group O and HIV-2 isolates was performed to examine their potential susceptibility to fusion inhibitors enfuvirtide (T-20) and T-1249. A high genetic diversity within the HRI and HR2 domains was found, which should compromise any antiviral effect of T-20 on HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O viruses.(More)