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UNLABELLED We generated cell lines resistant to BRAF inhibitors and show that the EGF receptor (EGFR)-SRC family kinase (SFK)-STAT3 signaling pathway was upregulated in these cells. In addition to driving proliferation of resistant cells, this pathway also stimulated invasion and metastasis. EGFR inhibitors cooperated with BRAF inhibitors to block the(More)
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, is a key regulator of melanocyte proliferation and differentiation and a determinant of pigmentation, skin phototype, and skin cancer risk. MC1R activation stimulates melanogenesis and increases the ratio of black, strongly photoprotective(More)
The alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is a heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the plasma membrane of melanocytes. By mediating the melanogenic response to melanocortins, MC1R is a major determinant of mammalian pigmentation. The human MC1R gene is unusually polymorphic. Many loss-of-function alleles have been(More)
The melanogenic actions of the melanocortins are mediated by the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R). MC1R is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) superfamily expressed in cutaneous and hair follicle melanocytes. Activation of MC1R by adrenocorticotrophin or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone is positively coupled to the cAMP signaling pathway(More)
We show that in melanoma cells oncogenic BRAF, acting through MEK and the transcription factor BRN2, downregulates the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5A. Although PDE5A downregulation causes a small decrease in proliferation, its major impact is to stimulate a dramatic increase in melanoma cell invasion. This is because PDE5A downregulation leads to an(More)
BRAF and MEK inhibitors are effective in BRAF mutant melanoma, but most patients eventually relapse with acquired resistance, and others present intrinsic resistance to these drugs. Resistance is often mediated by pathway reactivation through receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/SRC-family kinase (SFK) signaling or mutant NRAS, which drive paradoxical(More)
Melanoma is a highly metastatic and lethal form of skin cancer. The protein kinase BRAF is mutated in about 40% of melanomas, and BRAF inhibitors improve progression-free and overall survival in these patients. However, after a relatively short period of disease control, most patients develop resistance because of reactivation of the RAF-ERK (extracellular(More)
UNLABELLED NRAS mutations are common in human melanoma. To produce a mouse model of NRAS-driven melanoma, we expressed oncogenic NRAS (NRAS(G12D)) in mouse melanocytes. When NRAS(G12D) was expressed in the melanocytes of developing embryos, it induced melanocyte proliferation and congenital melanocytic lesions reminiscent of human blue nevi but did not(More)
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and the antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2), regulatory proteins of polyamine levels, are antizyme-binding proteins. Although it is widely recognized that ODC is mainly a cytosolic enzyme, less is known about the subcellular distribution of AZIN1 and AZIN2. We found that these proteins, which share a high degree of homology(More)