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Adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs) are critically controlled by Toll-like receptor (TLR) function. Little is known about modulation of TLR-specific signaling by other pathogen receptors. Here, we have identified a molecular signaling pathway induced by the C-type lectin DC-SIGN that modulates TLR signaling at the level of the transcription(More)
Sphingolipids are a class of biologically active lipids that have a role in multiple biological processes including inflammation. Sphingolipids exert their functions by direct signaling or through signaling by their specific receptors. Phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720P) is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) analogue that is currently in trial for treatment of(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a major hallmark of many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a genomics approach, we defined a microRNA signature that is diminished at the BBB of MS patients. In particular, miR-125a-5p is a key regulator of brain endothelial tightness and immune cell efflux. Our findings suggest that(More)
The quantification of gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the field of gene expression analysis. Due to its sensitivity and flexibility it is becoming the method of choice for many investigators. However, good normalization protocols still have to be implemented to facilitate data exchange and comparison. We have(More)
The endothelium plays a central role in the logistics of the immune system by allowing the selective transmigration of leukocytes, as well as the maintenance of the circulation and coagulation homeostasis. Evidence is increasing that the carbohydrate composition of the endothelial cell surface is critical for the cells to exert their physiological function.(More)
To ensure efficient energy supply to the high demanding brain, nutrients are transported into brain cells via specific glucose (GLUT) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism are thought to play an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here,(More)
Regulation of gene expression at the level of mRNA stability is a major topic of research; however, knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms affecting the binding and function of AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins (AUBPs) in response to extracellular signals is minimal. The beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (beta4GalT1) gene enabled us to study the(More)
Inflammatory cell trafficking into the brain complicates several neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis. Normally, reliable brain functioning is maintained and controlled by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is essential to restrict the entry of potentially harmful molecules and cells from the blood into the brain. The BBB is a selective(More)
Patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may experience a temporary reduction of disease symptoms during pregnancy. As indicated by the occurrence of RA-disease symptoms during pregnancy, three categories of patients were defined, namely, remission, relapse and unchanged. In all three categories changes in the plasma level and glycosylation of(More)
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette efflux transporters are highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and actively hinder passage of harmful compounds, thereby maintaining brain homoeostasis. Since, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters drive cellular exclusion of potential neurotoxic compounds or inflammatory molecules, alterations in(More)