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Adaptive immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs) are critically controlled by Toll-like receptor (TLR) function. Little is known about modulation of TLR-specific signaling by other pathogen receptors. Here, we have identified a molecular signaling pathway induced by the C-type lectin DC-SIGN that modulates TLR signaling at the level of the transcription(More)
Sphingolipids are a class of biologically active lipids that have a role in multiple biological processes including inflammation. Sphingolipids exert their functions by direct signaling or through signaling by their specific receptors. Phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720P) is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) analogue that is currently in trial for treatment of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder, which is marked by the invasion of the central nervous system by monocyte-derived macrophages and autoreactive T cells across the brain vasculature. Data from experimental animal models recently implied that the passage of leukocytes across the brain vasculature is preceded by their traversal(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a major hallmark of many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a genomics approach, we defined a microRNA signature that is diminished at the BBB of MS patients. In particular, miR-125a-5p is a key regulator of brain endothelial tightness and immune cell efflux. Our findings suggest that(More)
To ensure efficient energy supply to the high demanding brain, nutrients are transported into brain cells via specific glucose (GLUT) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism are thought to play an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here,(More)
Inflammatory cell trafficking into the brain complicates several neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis. Normally, reliable brain functioning is maintained and controlled by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is essential to restrict the entry of potentially harmful molecules and cells from the blood into the brain. The BBB is a selective(More)
Regulation of gene expression at the level of mRNA stability is a major topic of research; however, knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms affecting the binding and function of AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins (AUBPs) in response to extracellular signals is minimal. The 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 ( 4GalT1) gene enabled us to study the mechanisms(More)
␣ 1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a major acute-phase protein present in human plasma as well as in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). In this report, we show that PMN synthesize a specific glycoform of AGP, which is stored in the specific and azurophilic granules. Activation of PMN results in the rapid release of soluble AGP. PMN AGP exhibits a substantially(More)
In patients with glioblastomas, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumor-associated angiogenesis. Glioblastomas are notorious for their capacity to induce neovascularization, driving continued tumor growth. Here we report that miR-125b is down-regulated in glioblastoma-associated endothelial cells, resulting in increased(More)
There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation contribute to neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we investigated whether alterations in transcriptional regulators of key mitochondrial proteins underlie mitochondrial dysfunction in MS cortex and contribute to neuronal(More)