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BACKGROUND Opioid abuse has continued to increase at an alarming rate since the 1990 s. As documented by different medical specialties, medical boards, advocacy groups, and the Drug Enforcement Administration, available evidence suggests a wide variance in chronic opioid therapy of 90 days or longer in chronic non-cancer pain. Part 1 describes evidence(More)
The present evidence illustrates that the placebo effect depends on a variety of neurochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms, which are measurable and modifiable. However, the placebo response is inexorably tied to the treatment context. All medical treatments take place in a particular context; this context includes the therapist's attitudes,(More)
RESULTS Part 2 of the guidelines on responsible opioid prescribing provides the following recommendations for initiating and maintaining chronic opioid therapy of 90 days or longer. 1. A) Comprehensive assessment and documentation is recommended before initiating opioid therapy, including documentation of comprehensive history, general medical condition,(More)
Study Design. A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial. Objective. To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic thoracic facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic mid back and upper back pain. Summary of Background Data. The prevalence of thoracic facet joint pain has been established as 34% to 42%. Multiple(More)
the past two decades, as the prevalence of chronic pain and health care costs have exploded, an opioid epidemic with adverse consequences has escalated. Efforts to increase opioid use and a campaign touting the alleged undertreatment of pain continue to be significant factors in the escalation. Many arguments in favor of opioids are based solely on(More)
In response to criticisms of the methodology of Barber's(1969)experiments, a 2x2 factorial design, varying hypnotic susceptibility and hypnotic treatment, was used to study the role of 'hypnosis' in the production of age regression by suggestion. Twenty subjects of high hypnotic susceptibility and 20 subjects of low hypnotic susceptibility were randomly(More)
The Barber Suggestibility Scale, as a measure of hypnotic susceptibility, was administered to 130 British undergraduate students by 13 student experimenters in a 2 x 2 factorial design withe sex of the subject and the sex of the experimenter as the two variables. The results showed no significant differences among the scores obtained by the 13 experimenters(More)
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