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The plasma membrane of epithelial cells is subdivided into two physically separated compartments known as the apical and basolateral membranes. To obtain directional transepithelial solute transport, membrane transporters (i.e., ion channels, cotransporters, exchangers, and ion pumps) need to be targeted selectively to either of these membrane domains. In(More)
The TRPA1 channel is activated by a number of pungent chemicals, such as allylisothiocyanate, present in mustard oil and thiosulfinates present in garlic. Most of the known activating compounds contain reactive, electrophilic chemical groups, reacting with cysteine residues in the active site of the TRPA1 channel. This covalent modification results in(More)
A primary cell culture was developed for efferent dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons of the locust. The isolated somata were able to generate Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive action potentials in vitro. The alpha-like scorpion toxin BmK M1, from the Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, prolonged the duration of the action potential up to 50 times. To(More)
Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system. They are suspected to play important roles in adult synaptogenesis and in the development of the neuronal network. Microglial cells originate from progenitors in the yolk sac. Although it was suggested that they invade the cortex at early developmental stages in the embryo, their invasion pattern(More)
The TRPA1 channel can be considered as a key biological sensor to irritant chemicals. In this paper, the discovery of 11H-dibenz[b,e]azepines (morphanthridines) and dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepines is described as extremely potent agonists of the TRPA1 receptor. This has led to the discovery that most of the known tear gases are potent TRPA1 activators. The(More)
The inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine is known to enhance microglial nitric oxide production. However, up to now, the mechanism is undocumented. Since calcium is an important second messenger in both immune and glial cells, we studied the effects of glycine on intracellular calcium signaling. We found that millimolar concentrations of glycine enhance(More)
PURPOSE   Febrile seizures (FS), the most frequent seizure type during childhood, have been linked to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in adulthood. Yet, underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Altered γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus (DG) circuit has been hypothesized to be involved. This study aims at analyzing(More)
BmBKTx1 is a novel short chain toxin purified from the venom of the Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. It is composed of 31 residues and is structurally related to SK toxins. However, when tested on the cloned rat SK2 channel, it only partially inhibited rSK2 currents, even at a concentration of 1 microm. To screen for other possible targets, BmBKTx1(More)
Regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is a protective mechanism that allows mammalian cells to restore their volume when exposed to a hypotonic environment. A key component of RVD is the release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes, such as taurine, which then drives osmotic water efflux. Previous experiments have indicated that caveolin-1, a coat protein of(More)
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting mainly in the caudal part of the central nervous system. Besides this neurotransmitter function, glycine has cytoprotective and modulatory effects in different non-neuronal cell types. Modulatory effects were mainly described in immune cells, endothelial cells and macroglial cells, where glycine modulates(More)