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The TRPA1 channel is activated by a number of pungent chemicals, such as allylisothiocyanate, present in mustard oil and thiosulfinates present in garlic. Most of the known activating compounds contain reactive, electrophilic chemical groups, reacting with cysteine residues in the active site of the TRPA1 channel. This covalent modification results in(More)
Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system. They are suspected to play important roles in adult synaptogenesis and in the development of the neuronal network. Microglial cells originate from progenitors in the yolk sac. Although it was suggested that they invade the cortex at early developmental stages in the embryo, their invasion pattern(More)
The plasma membrane of epithelial cells is subdivided into two physically separated compartments known as the apical and basolateral membranes. To obtain directional transepithelial solute transport, membrane transporters (i.e., ion channels, cotransporters, exchangers, and ion pumps) need to be targeted selectively to either of these membrane domains. In(More)
A primary cell culture was developed for efferent dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons of the locust. The isolated somata were able to generate Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive action potentials in vitro. The alpha-like scorpion toxin BmK M1, from the Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, prolonged the duration of the action potential up to 50 times. To(More)
The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel has been implicated in a number of inflammatory and nociceptive processes, and antagonists of the TRPA1 receptor could offer a potential treatment for conditions such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, airway disorders, and itch. In a high throughput screen aimed at the identification of TRPA1(More)
The inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine is known to enhance microglial nitric oxide production. However, up to now, the mechanism is undocumented. Since calcium is an important second messenger in both immune and glial cells, we studied the effects of glycine on intracellular calcium signaling. We found that millimolar concentrations of glycine enhance(More)
The TRPA1 channel can be considered as a key biological sensor to irritant chemicals. In this paper, the discovery of 11H-dibenz[b,e]azepines (morphanthridines) and dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepines is described as extremely potent agonists of the TRPA1 receptor. This has led to the discovery that most of the known tear gases are potent TRPA1 activators. The(More)
In this study the ATP-induced (P2X) currents in isolated peritoneal macrophages of wild type (WT) and P2X(4) knockout (P2X(4)(-/-)) mice were studied by means of whole-cell patch clamp in order to (1) survey the P2X currents of native macrophages and (2) to investigate the expression of P2X(4)-like currents in the WT versus P2X(4)(-/-) mice. Three types of(More)
A more detailed insight into disease mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is crucial for the development of new and more effective therapies. MS is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to identify novel disease associated proteins involved in the development of inflammatory brain lesions, to help(More)
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting mainly in the caudal part of the central nervous system. Besides this neurotransmitter function, glycine has cytoprotective and modulatory effects in different non-neuronal cell types. Modulatory effects were mainly described in immune cells, endothelial cells and macroglial cells, where glycine modulates(More)