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To investigate if possible mitochondrial injury can be found in adipose tissue of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients, subcutaneous fat was taken from the buttocks of 24 HIV-positive patients and 8 HIV-negative controls. The content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was quantified using a Southern blot technique. Fat(More)
The "D drug" HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitors zalcitabine, didanosine, and stavudine are relatively strong inhibitors of polymerase-gamma compared with the "non-D drugs" zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir. D drugs deplete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cultured hepatocytes. This mtDNA depletion is associated with an increased in vitro production of(More)
BACKGROUND Some nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) combinations cause additive or synergistic interactions in vitro and in vivo. METHODS We evaluated the mitochondrial toxicity of tenofovir (TFV), emtricitabine (FTC) and abacavir as carbovir (CBV) alone, with each other, and in combination with additional NRTIs. HepG2 human(More)
Doxorubicin causes a chronic cardiomyopathy. Although the exact pathogenesis is unknown, recent animal data suggest that somatically acquired alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction play an important role in its onset. In this study, skeletal and myocardial muscles were examined from human autopsies. Compared to(More)
BACKGROUND Doxorubicin causes a chronic cardiomyopathy of unknown pathogenesis. We investigated whether acquired defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and interconnected respiratory chain dysfunction may represent a molecular mechanism for its late onset. METHODS AND RESULTS Rats were treated weekly with intravenous doxorubicin (1 mg/kg) for 7 weeks,(More)
BACKGROUND Some nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) may cause depletion of mitochondrial (mt) DNA in liver by inhibiting polymerase-gamma. mtDNA depletion may contribute to lactic acidosis, steatohepatitis and liver failure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term mitochondrial toxicity of NRTI combinations. METHODS The HepG2 human(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Doxorubicin causes a chronic cardiomyopathy in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulate over time and are associated with genetic and functional lesions of mitochondria. Dexrazoxane is a cardioprotective iron chelator that interferes with ROS production. We aim to analyze the effects of dexrazoxane on mitochondria in the(More)
BACKGROUND Autosomal recessive mutations in deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) have been identified in the hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome. OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical spectrum of DGUOK-related mtDNA depletion syndrome in 6 children and to summarize the literature. RESULTS We identified pathogenic mutations in(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term use of both zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T) is associated with lipoatrophy, but it occurs possibly through different mechanisms. METHODS Surgical biopsy specimens of subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 18 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected lipoatrophic patients (the LA+ group) who were treated with(More)
OBJECTIVES Uridine abrogates mitochondrial toxicities of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in adipocyte cell culture. We aim to study the effect of uridine supplementation on human adipocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in subjects with human immunodeficiency (HIV) lipoatrophy. METHODS Sixteen patients with lipoatrophy on stavudine-containing(More)