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Much of the damage that occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) following trauma is due to secondary effects of glutamate excitotoxicity, Ca2+ overload, and oxidative stress, three mechanisms that in a spiraling interactive cascade end in neuronal death. Oxidative stress activates mechanisms that result in a neutrophil-mediated inflammation that also(More)
Previous work showed that the susceptibility of oligodendroglial progenitors to oxidative stress is related to their low reduced-glutathione (GSH) and high iron contents. This suggests that these cells have a poor ability to scavenge peroxides. All peroxides are scavenged by glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione peroxidase activity requires GSH as an electron(More)
The glutathione (GSH) system plays an important role in reducing oxidative stress, the increase of which has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) whether the GSH system was impaired in aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and (2) whether this system could be(More)
There are still questions regarding whether macrophages found in MS lesions are agents of recovery or of destruction. To address this, we examined in aggregate cultures prepared from dissociated embryonic spinal cord tissue, with or without addition of exogenous macrophages, the effect of menadione-induced oxidative stress. Similar to findings of other(More)
The electron donors glutathione and thioredoxin play many vital roles in the mechanisms of cells to cope with oxidative stress. Critical to such antioxidant functions are the ability to synthesize glutathione and keep it reduced via glutathione reductase and the ability to reduce oxidized-thioredoxin via thioredoxin reductase. The rate-limiting enzyme for(More)
Methylglyoxal can yield advanced glycation end products via nonenzymatic glycation of proteins. Whether methylglyoxal contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension has not been clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the levels of methylglyoxal and methylglyoxal-induced advanced glycation end products were enhanced and whether(More)
Release of glutamate and aspartate was measured in mouse cerebellar granule cells in primary cultures grown for 4-16 days in serum-containing tissue culture medium with either a partially depolarizing (25 mM) or a physiological concentration of potassium (5.4 mM). The cells migrated to form aggregates connected by a network of processes during the first(More)
There is disagreement in the literature whether or not deoxyglucose accumulation, a measure of glycolytic activity, is increased in astrocytes during exposure to elevated concentrations of the potassium ion (K+). In the present work we have confirmed our previous finding that deoxyglucose accumulation in primary cultures of well-differentiated mouse(More)
The ability to track cells in small-animal models of human disease is important because it gives the potential to improve our understanding of the processes of disease progression as well as our understanding of the therapeutic effects of interventions. In this study gold nanoparticles have been used as a permanent marker of implanted normal and malignant(More)
We report procedures that allow one to develop and maintain cultures highly enriched in rat neopallial type-2 astrocytes. Even after four weeks such cultures consist of more than 90% type-2 astrocytes, approximately 5% O-2A progenitors and fewer than 2% type-1 astrocytes. Their survival for more than 5 days requires the addition of conditioned medium from(More)