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Garlic's pungent flavor has made it a popular ingredient in cuisines around the world and throughout history. Garlic's health benefits have been elevated from folklore to clinical study. Although there is some controversy as to the efficacy of garlic, garlic products are one of the most popular herbal supplements in the U.S. Chemically complex, garlic(More)
Four different immunoassay and antibody microarray methods performed at four different sites were used to measure the levels of a broad range of proteins (N = 323 assays; 39, 88, 168, and 28 assays at the respective sites; 237 unique analytes) in the human serum and plasma reference specimens distributed by the Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) of the HUPO. The(More)
We genetically encoded the photocaged amino acid 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzylserine (DMNB-Ser) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to the amber nonsense codon TAG. This amino acid was converted to serine in living cells by irradiation with relatively low-energy blue light and was used to noninvasively photoactivate phosphorylation of the transcription(More)
Bifurcated electron flow to high potential "Rieske" iron-sulfur cluster and low potential heme b(L) is crucial for respiratory energy conservation by the cytochrome bc(1) complex. The chemistry of ubiquinol oxidation has to ensure the thermodynamically unfavorable electron transfer to heme b(L). To resolve a central controversy about the number of ubiquinol(More)
BACKGROUND Conceptionally, antibody microarrays are simply multiplexed sandwich immunoassays in a miniaturized format. However, from the amounts of capture antibodies used, it is not apparent whether such assays are ambient analyte (Ekins. Clin Chem 1998;44:2015-30) or mass-sensing devices (Silzel et al. Clin Chem 1998;44:2036-43). We evaluated multiplexed(More)
A four-ring tripeptide containing alternating imidazole and pyrrole carboxamides specifically binds six-base pair 5'-(A,T)GCGC(A,T)-3' sites in the minor groove of DNA. The designed peptide has a specificity completely reversed from that of the tripyrrole distamycin, which binds A,T sequences. Structural studies with nuclear magnetic resonance revealed that(More)
Polyamides containing N-methylimidazole (Im) and N-methylpyrrole (Py) amino acids can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes for sequence-specific recognition in the minor groove of DNA. Covalently linking polyamide subunits has led to designed ligands with both increased affinity and specificity. Simple aliphatic amino acid linkers(More)
NMR spectroscopy combined with molecular modeling was used to characterize a heterodimeric complex with Dst and 2-ImN bound in the minor groove of d(GCCTAACAAGG).d(CCTTGTTAGGC) (1:1:1 2-ImN.Dst.DNA complex). The imidazole-pyrrole-pyrrole ligand 2-ImN spans 5'-GTTA-3' of the TAACA.TGTTA binding site with the imidazole nitrogen specifically recognizing the(More)
The designed peptide 1-methylimidazole-2-carboxamide netropsin (2-ImN) binds specifically to the sequence 5'-TGACT-3'. Direct evidence from NMR spectroscopy is presented that this synthetic ligand binds DNA as a 2:1 complex, which reveals that the structure is an antiparallel dimer in the minor groove of DNA. This is in contrast to the 1:1 complexes usually(More)
Polyamides containing N-methylimidazole (Im) and N-methylpyrrole (Py) amino acids can be combined in antiparallel side-by-side dimeric complexes for sequence-specific recognition in the minor groove of DNA. Because the curvature of four or five contiguous Im-Py rings does not perfectly match the canonical B-helix,-alanine () residues have been inserted to(More)