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Environmental factors and diet are generally believed to be accelerators of obesity and hypertension, but they are not the underlying cause. Our animal model of obesity and hypertension is based on the observation that impaired fetal growth has long-term clinical consequences that are induced by fetal programming. Using fetal undernutrition throughout(More)
An adverse prenatal environment may induce long-term metabolic consequences, in particular obesity and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this programming has generally been considered an irreversible change in developmental trajectory. Adult offspring of rats subjected to undernutrition during pregnancy develop obesity,(More)
Growth factors play an important role in the regulation of cell growth, division and differentiation. In this study the distribution and regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the continuously erupting rat incisor was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated both visually and with a computer-based image analysis system. The(More)
While it is well established that severe maternal undernutrition during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), there has been relatively little study of the endocrine consequences and postnatal development of growth-retarded offspring. We have developed a model in the rat of IUGR by nutritional restriction of the mother throughout(More)
To determine the effects of chronic maternal undernutrition on postnatal somatic growth and blood pressure, pregnant dams were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatment groups. A control group was fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and a restricted group was fed 30% of ad libitum intake. From birth, feeding was ad libitum in both groups, and litter(More)
This report describes essential requirements for the validation of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and presents solutions to some problems and pitfalls commonly observed. The preparation of IGF-I to be used as radioligand or standard has to be selected carefully since some IGF-I preparations are contaminated with variants(More)
Obesity and related metabolic disorders are prevalent health issues in modern society and are commonly attributed to lifestyle and dietary factors. However, the mechanisms by which environmental factors modulate the physiological systems that control weight regulation and the aetiology of metabolic disorders, which manifest in adult life, may have their(More)
An adverse prenatal environment may induce long-term metabolic consequences, in particular obesity, hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this "programming" has generally been considered an irreversible change in developmental trajectory. Adult offspring of rats subjected to undernutrition (UN) during(More)
Large amounts of amniotic fluid (AF) are swallowed in late gestation. AF is the most accessible fetal compartment and provides a possible paraplacental route for the therapeutic administration of hormones and nutrients to the fetus. We therefore wished to investigate the fate of the predominant fetal growth factor, IGF-I, administered into AF of(More)