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Environmental factors and diet are generally believed to be accelerators of obesity and hypertension, but they are not the underlying cause. Our animal model of obesity and hypertension is based on the observation that impaired fetal growth has long-term clinical consequences that are induced by fetal programming. Using fetal undernutrition throughout(More)
An adverse prenatal environment may induce long-term metabolic consequences, in particular obesity and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this programming has generally been considered an irreversible change in developmental trajectory. Adult offspring of rats subjected to undernutrition during pregnancy develop obesity,(More)
This report describes essential requirements for the validation of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and presents solutions to some problems and pitfalls commonly observed. The preparation of IGF-I to be used as radioligand or standard has to be selected carefully since some IGF-I preparations are contaminated with variants(More)
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has acute insulin-like metabolic effects and long-term anabolic actions offering a range of important therapeutic applications. To evaluate a system for large-scale production of this peptide in the mammary glands of transgenic livestock, we generated transgenic rabbits carrying fusion genes in which a synthetic DNA(More)
While it is well established that severe maternal undernutrition during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), there has been relatively little study of the endocrine consequences and postnatal development of growth-retarded offspring. We have developed a model in the rat of IUGR by nutritional restriction of the mother throughout(More)
Growth factors play an important role in the regulation of cell growth, division and differentiation. In this study the distribution and regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the continuously erupting rat incisor was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated both visually and with a computer-based image analysis system. The(More)
Fetal growth is normally constrained by maternal factors. This constraint is demonstrated by the usual inverse linear relationship between litter size and mean fetal weight. Cross-breeding experiments between mice of lines selected for high or low plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels suggested that elevations in maternal IGF-I abolish (P less(More)
To determine the effects of chronic maternal undernutrition on postnatal somatic growth and blood pressure, pregnant dams were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatment groups. A control group was fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and a restricted group was fed 30% of ad libitum intake. From birth, feeding was ad libitum in both groups, and litter(More)
We performed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in normally lactating women (N = 8 per group) to investigate the endocrine mode of action of the galactopoietic effect of this hormone. Insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-I) and II (IGF-II) and their binding proteins (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3) were(More)