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Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with degrading enzymes transforms the molecule to a moiety that is micromorphologically indistinguishable from lipoproteinaceous particles that are present in atherosclerotic plaques, and enzymatically modified LDL (E-LDL), but not oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), spontaneously activates the alternative complement pathway,(More)
Combined treatment with trypsin, cholesterol esterase, and neuraminidase transforms LDL, but not HDL or VLDL, to particles with properties akin to those of lipid extracted from atherosclerotic lesions. Single or double enzyme modifications, or treatment with phospholipase C, or simple vortexing are ineffective. Triple enzyme treatment disrupts the ordered(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) restores equilibrium to the ER, but prolonged expression of the UPR effector CHOP (GADD153) is cytotoxic. We found that CHOP expression induced by ER stress was suppressed by prior engagement of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 or 4 through a TRIF-dependent pathway. TLR engagement did not suppress(More)
The mechanisms underlying the selective accumulation of macrophages in early atherosclerotic lesions are poorly understood but are likely to be related to specific properties of altered low density lipoprotein (LDL) deposited in the subendothelium. Enzymatic, nonoxidative degradation of LDL converts the lipoprotein to a potentially atherogenic moiety,(More)
Chronic unresolved inflammation plays a causal role in the development of advanced atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms that prevent resolution in atherosclerosis remain unclear. Here, we use targeted mass spectrometry to identify specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) in histologically-defined stable and vulnerable regions of human carotid(More)
The human gut contains trillions of commensal bacteria, and similar to pathogenic bacteria, the gut microbes and their products can be recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is well acknowledged that the interaction between gut microbiota and the local TLRs help to maintain the homeostasis of intestinal immunity. High-fat intake or obesity can weaken(More)
Inflammation is the driving force in atherosclerosis. One central strategy in the treatment for PAD is the promotion of angiogenesis. Here, pro-angiogenic Tie-2-expressing monocytes (TEM) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play a crucial role. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is characterized by a severe, chronic inflammatory response; thus, progression of(More)
We report the fabrication of a novel type of artificial small diameter blood vessels, termed biomimetic tissue-engineered blood vessels (bTEBV), with a modular composition. They are composed of a hydrogel scaffold consisting of two negatively charged natural polymers, alginate and a modified chitosan, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC). Into this(More)
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