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Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing basidiomycete that confers a wide range of beneficial traits to its host. The fungus shows a biotrophic growth phase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots followed by a cell death-associated colonization phase, a colonization strategy that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported for this plant. P. indica(More)
The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica initially colonizes living cells, which die as the colonization proceeds. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of this colonization-associated cell death. Our cytological analyses revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling and vacuolar collapse in invaded cells, indicative of(More)
Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in(More)
BACKGROUND Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and(More)
The intracellular effects of GSH (reduced glutathione) and BSO (buthionine sulfoximine) treatment on glutathione content were investigated with immunogold labeling in individual cellular compartments of Cucurbita pepo L. seedlings. Generally, GSH treatment led to increased levels of glutathione in roots and leaves (up to 3.5-fold in nuclei), whereas BSO(More)
One biochemical response to increased H₂O₂ availability is the accumulation of glutathione disulphide (GSSG), the disulphide form of the key redox buffer glutathione. It remains unclear how this potentially important oxidative stress response impacts on the different sub-cellular glutathione pools. We addressed this question by using two independent in situ(More)
This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana). Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer which is involved in many metabolic processes including plant defense. Thus information on the subcellular distribution in these model plants(More)
The compartment specific distribution of ascorbate in plants is of great importance for plant development, growth and defense as this multifunctional metabolite plays important roles in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, modulation of gene expression and is important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though(More)
Selected cell organelles were investigated at a high level of resolution with the transmission electron microscope, using ultrathin serial sections to create three-dimensional reconstructions. On the basis of these reconstructions, morphological data of chloroplast fine structures, mitochondria, and peroxisomes from control and drought-stressed spinach(More)