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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in animal cells is an extensive, morphologically continuous network of membrane tubules and flattened cisternae. The ER is a multifunctional organelle; the synthesis of membrane lipids, membrane and secretory proteins, and the regulation of intracellular calcium are prominent among its array of functions. Many of these(More)
Honey bee photoreceptors contain large sacs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can be located unequivocally in freeze-dried cryosections. The elemental composition of the ER was determined by electron probe x-ray microanalysis and was visualized in high-resolution x-ray maps. In the ER of dark-adapted photoreceptors, the Ca concentration was 47.5 +/- 1.1(More)
Eukaryotic vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are regulated by the reversible disassembly of the active V(1)V(0) holoenzyme into a cytosolic V(1) complex and a membrane-bound V(0) complex. The signaling cascades that trigger these events in response to changing cellular conditions are largely unknown. We report that the V(1) subunit C of the tobacco(More)
This study examines whether the salivary duct cells of the cockroach Periplaneta americana can be stimulated by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. We have carried out digital Ca2+-imaging experiments using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 and conventional intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands. Dopamine evokes a slow, almost tonic,(More)
The phenolamines octopamine and tyramine control, regulate, and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes in invertebrates. Vertebrates possess only small amounts of both substances, and thus, octopamine and tyramine, together with other biogenic amines, are referred to as "trace amines." Biogenic amines evoke cellular responses by activating(More)
We have studied the effects of 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) on (1) the rates of salivation from isolated salivary glands of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, (2) the protein content of the saliva, and (3) the ultrastructure of the salivary gland epithelium. The rates of neurotransmitter-induced salivation varied in a(More)
Microphotometric measurements are used to investigate the functional properties of Ca2+-sequestering smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in leech photoreceptors. 10-30 intact cells are mounted in a perfusion chamber, placed between crossed polarizers in a microphotometer, and permeabilized by saponin treatment. Subsequent perfusion with solutions containing(More)
The acinous salivary glands of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) consist of four morphologically different cell types with different functions: the peripheral cells are thought to produce the fluid component of the primary saliva, the central cells secrete the proteinaceous components, the inner acinar duct cells stabilize the acini and secrete a(More)
Secretory activity in blowfly salivary glands is activated by the hormone serotonin. We have investigated the distribution and activity of two cation pumps that are possibly involved with transepithelial ion transport, i.e. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). By immunofluorescence labelling of secretory cells, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was(More)
Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are heteromultimeric proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the electrogenic transport of protons across membranes. They are common to all eukaryotic cells and are located in the plasma membrane or in membranes of acid organelles. In many insect epithelia, V-ATPase molecules reside in large numbers in the apical(More)