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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in animal cells is an extensive, morphologically continuous network of membrane tubules and flattened cisternae. The ER is a multifunctional organelle; the synthesis of membrane lipids, membrane and secretory proteins, and the regulation of intracellular calcium are prominent among its array of functions. Many of these(More)
The composition of dark-adapted and illuminated retinal rod outer and inner segments and mitochondria was determined with electron probe X-ray micro-analysis of cryosections. The concentration of Ca in the outer segment was 0.4 mmol/kg dry wt. (0.1 Ca/rhodopsin) and did not measurably change upon illumination with saturating light for 5 min. The(More)
Microphotometric measurements are used to investigate the functional properties of Ca2+-sequestering smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in leech photoreceptors. 10-30 intact cells are mounted in a perfusion chamber, placed between crossed polarizers in a microphotometer, and permeabilized by saponin treatment. Subsequent perfusion with solutions containing(More)
Deeply dark adapted (1 h) photoreceptor cells of the honey bee drone show a light-induced enhancement of sensitivity (facilitation) as an aftereffect of illumination or in the presence of dim backgrounds. The Ca(2+)-dependency of this effect was studied: Reduction of extracellular Ca2+ to 0.1 mM decreases the sensitivity of a dark adapted cell, and the(More)
Living Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells were injected with long chain lipophilic carbocyanine fluorescent dyes to label the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The purpose of this study was to examine the continuity, dynamic changes, and structure of the ER in the living cell, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction.(More)
Intercellular Ca2+ signaling in intact salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala was studied by fluorimetric digital imaging combined with microinjection of putative messenger molecules. Iontophoretic injection of D-myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (InsP3) into salivary gland cells evoked regenerative intercellular Ca2+ waves that spread(More)
1. Blowfly salivary glands have been used extensively as a model system for the analysis of inositol phosphate-dependent signal transduction. To detect and characterize changes in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) that might be expected to be triggered by stimulation with serotonin (5-HT), we have carried out digital calcium-imaging experiments on intact(More)
Light-dependent changes in the positioning of organelles in photoreceptor cells of arthropods are a well-known phenomenon. In this study, we examine the role of the cytoskeleton in these light-dependent antagonistic movements. In dark-adapted photoreceptor cells of the locust Schistocerca gregaria, prominent sacs of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oppose(More)
The phenolamines octopamine and tyramine control, regulate, and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes in invertebrates. Vertebrates possess only small amounts of both substances, and thus, octopamine and tyramine, together with other biogenic amines, are referred to as "trace amines." Biogenic amines evoke cellular responses by activating(More)
The leech photoreceptor forms a unicellular epithelium: every cell surrounds an extracellular "vacuole" that is connected to the remaining extracellular space via narrow clefts containing pleated septate junctions. We analyzed the complete structural layout of all septa within the junctional complex in elastic brightfield stereo electron micrographs of(More)