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Previous studies have suggested an acutely improving effect of insulin on memory function. To study changes in memory associated with a prolonged increase in brain insulin activity in humans, here we used the intranasal route of insulin administration known to provide direct access of the substance to the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. Based on previous(More)
Recently it has been reported that during insulin-induced hypoglycemia selective attention is directed to food stimuli suggesting an adaptive cognitive strategy to escape from this potentially dangerous metabolic state. Here, we tested this hypothesis using a short-term memory task. We also aimed to define a hypoglycemic threshold level at which such an(More)
CONTEXT There is growing recognition that a large number of individuals living in Western society are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. However, the brain regions that are most susceptible to sleep deprivation-induced changes when processing food stimuli are unknown. OBJECTIVE(More)
BACKGROUND Short sleep duration is correlated with an increased risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of(More)
Humans carrying the prevalent rs9939609 A allele of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are more susceptible to developing obesity than noncarries. Recently, polymorphisms in the FTO gene of elderly subjects have also been linked to a reduced volume in the frontal lobe as well as increased risk for incident Alzheimer disease. However, so far(More)
BACKGROUND Nocturnal hypoglycemia frequently occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It can be fatal and is believed to promote the development of the hypoglycemia-unawareness syndrome. Whether hypoglycemia normally provokes awakening from sleep in individuals who do not have diabetes, and whether this awakening response is impaired in T1DM(More)
There is compelling evidence that intranasal administration of regular human insulin (RH-I) improves memory in humans. Owing to the reduced tendency of its molecules to form hexamers, the rapid-acting insulin analog insulin aspart (ASP-I) is more rapidly absorbed than RH-I after subcutaneous administration. Since after intranasal insulin administration,(More)
BACKGROUND Compelling evidence indicates that central nervous insulin enhances learning and memory and in particular benefits hippocampus-dependent (i.e., declarative) memory. Intranasal administration of insulin provides an effective way of delivering the compound to the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier and avoiding systemic side(More)
Antecedent hypoglycemia is known to attenuate hormonal and symptomatic responses to subsequent hypoglycemia. Whether this pertains also to hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction is controversially discussed. Neurocognitive adaptation might essentially depend on the type of function. Here, we compared the influence of recurrent hypoglycemia in 15 healthy(More)
Circulating insulin is thought to provide a major feedback signal for the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake, although this signaling appears to be slowed by a time-consuming blood-to-brain transport. Here we show, by recording direct current potentials, a rapid onset of the effects of circulating insulin on human brain activity.(More)