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Sleep loss is currently proposed to disturb endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis leading to weight gain and obesity. Supporting this view, a reduction of sleep duration to 4 h for two consecutive nights has recently been shown to decrease circulating leptin levels and to increase ghrelin levels, as well as self-reported hunger. We hypothesized that(More)
Previous studies have suggested an acutely improving effect of insulin on memory function. To study changes in memory associated with a prolonged increase in brain insulin activity in humans, here we used the intranasal route of insulin administration known to provide direct access of the substance to the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. Based on previous(More)
BACKGROUND Short sleep duration is correlated with an increased risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of(More)
CONTEXT There is growing recognition that a large number of individuals living in Western society are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. However, the brain regions that are most susceptible to sleep deprivation-induced changes when processing food stimuli are unknown. OBJECTIVE(More)
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Insulin acts in the brain to reduce food intake and body weight and is considered a major adiposity signal in energy homeostasis. In normal-weight men, intranasal insulin administration reduces body fat and improves declarative memory. The present experiments aimed to generalize these findings to obese patients, with a view to evaluate(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Epidemiological studies point to a strong association between short sleep duration and the development of diabetes. We examined the hypothesis that short-term sleep loss decreases glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and, if so, how these changes relate to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) secretory activity and markers of(More)
Recently it has been reported that during insulin-induced hypoglycemia selective attention is directed to food stimuli suggesting an adaptive cognitive strategy to escape from this potentially dangerous metabolic state. Here, we tested this hypothesis using a short-term memory task. We also aimed to define a hypoglycemic threshold level at which such an(More)
OBJECTIVE Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been proposed as an effective alternative to the current standard procedure, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Prospective data comparing both procedures are rare. Therefore, we performed a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness and safety of these 2 operative techniques. (More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans. DESIGN According to a balanced(More)
BACKGROUND Reduction of food intake is an important mechanism by which bariatric procedures reduce body weight. However, only few studies have systematically assessed what patients actually eat after different types of bariatric operations. METHODS Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire in 121 bariatric patients (48 gastric bypass(More)