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Aerial plant surfaces represent the largest biological interface on Earth and provide essential services as sites of carbon dioxide fixation, molecular oxygen release, and primary biomass production. Rather than existing as axenic organisms, plants are colonized by microorganisms that affect both their health and growth. To gain insight into the physiology(More)
The chromatin-associated enzyme PARP1 has previously been suggested to ADP-ribosylate histones, but the specific ADP-ribose acceptor sites have remained enigmatic. Here, we show that PARP1 covalently ADP-ribosylates the amino-terminal histone tails of all core histones. Using biochemical tools and novel electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometric(More)
The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins by kinases and phosphatases constitute an essential regulatory network in eukaryotic cells. This network supports the flow of information from sensors through signaling systems to effector molecules and ultimately drives the phenotype and function of cells, tissues, and organisms. Dysregulation of this(More)
AIMS Reversible phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins is essential in the regulation of respiratory function, energy metabolism, and mitochondrion-mediated cell death. We hypothesized that mitochondrial protein phosphorylation plays a critical role in cardioprotection during pre and postconditioning, two of the most efficient anti-ischaemic therapies.(More)
Leaf-litter decomposition is a central process in carbon cycling; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scarce. Metaproteomics allows us to link the abundance and activity of enzymes during nutrient cycling to their phylogenetic origin based on proteins, the 'active building blocks' in the system. Moreover, we(More)
Prokaryotes, due to their moderate complexity, are particularly amenable to the comprehensive identification of the protein repertoire expressed under different conditions. We applied a generic strategy to identify a complete expressed prokaryotic proteome, which is based on the analysis of RNA and proteins extracted from matched samples. Saturated(More)
Import of nuclear-encoded precursor proteins from the cytosol is an essential step in chloroplast biogenesis that is mediated by protein translocon complexes at the inner and outer envelope membrane (TOC). Toc159 is thought to be the main receptor for photosynthetic proteins, but lacking a large-scale systems approach, this hypothesis has only been tested(More)
The Sec pathway plays a prominent role in protein export and membrane insertion, including the secretion of major bacterial virulence determinants. The accessory Sec constituent SecDF has been proposed to contribute to protein export. Deletion of Staphylococcus aureus secDF has previously been shown to reduce resistance, to alter cell separation, and to(More)
Fungal pathogens are a frequent cause of opportunistic infections. They live as commensals in healthy individuals but can cause disease when the immune status of the host is altered. T lymphocytes play a critical role in pathogen control. However, specific Ags determining the activation and function of antifungal T cells remain largely unknown. By using an(More)
Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen that causes severe damage of many economically important crop species. Various microorganisms have been shown to inhibit this soil-borne plant pathogen, including non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains. In this study, F. oxysporum wild-type (WT) MSA 35, a biocontrol multispecies consortium that consists of a(More)