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Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is described by long-term potentiation (LTP), when a presynaptic event precedes a postsynaptic event, and by long-term depression (LTD), when the temporal order is reversed. In this article, we present a biophysical model of STDP based on a differential Hebbian learning rule (ISO learning). This rule correlates(More)
In this review, we compare methods for temporal sequence learning (TSL) across the disciplines machine-control, classical conditioning, neuronal models for TSL as well as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). This review introduces the most influential models and focuses on two questions: To what degree are reward-based (e.g., TD learning) and(More)
In this paper, we present our design and experiments of a planar biped robot under control of a pure sensor-driven controller. This design has some special mechanical features, e.g., small curved feet allowing rolling action and a properly positioned center of mass, that facilitate fast walking through exploitation of the robot's natural dynamics. Our(More)
A large body of experimental evidence suggests that the hippocampal place field system is involved in reward based navigation learning in rodents. Reinforcement learning (RL) mechanisms have been used to model this, associating the state space in an RL-algorithm to the place-field map in a rat. The convergence properties of RL-algorithms are affected by the(More)
Human walking is a dynamic, partly self-stabilizing process relying on the interaction of the biomechanical design with its neuronal control. The coordination of this process is a very difficult problem, and it has been suggested that it involves a hierarchy of levels, where the lower ones, e.g., interactions between muscles and the spinal cord, are largely(More)
Currently all important, low-level, unsupervised network learning algorithms follow the paradigm of Hebb, where input and output activity are correlated to change the connection strength of a synapse. However, as a consequence, classical Hebbian learning always carries a potentially destabilizing autocorrelation term, which is due to the fact that every(More)
Embodied cognition suggests that complex cognitive traits can only arise when agents have a body situated in the world. The aspects of embodiment and situatedness are being discussed here from the perspective of linear systems theory. This perspective treats bodies as dynamic, temporally variable entities, which can be extended (or curtailed) at their(More)
In this theoretical contribution, we provide mathematical proof that two of the most important classes of network learning-correlation-based differential Hebbian learning and reward-based temporal difference learning-are asymptotically equivalent when timing the learning with a modulatory signal. This opens the opportunity to consistently reformulate most(More)
Biped walking remains a difficult problem, and robot models can greatly facilitate our understanding of the underlying biomechanical principles as well as their neuronal control. The goal of this study is to specifically demonstrate that stable biped walking can be achieved by combining the physical properties of the walking robot with a small, reflex-based(More)