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Numerous studies have shown during the past 10 years that adenosine is present in the normoxic kidney and accumulates when ATP hydrolysis prevails over ATP synthesis. Local generation of adenosine by the macula densa cells and its release into the interstitium of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is considered to be the link between the enhanced NaCl(More)
In 1986, the risk of agranulocytosis prompted German authorities to restrict the indications for metamizole use. After an initial decline, prescriptions increased from <20 million defined daily doses in 1990 to >140 million in 2012. Concurrently, spontaneous reports of agranulocytosis increased from about 10 in 1990 to >50 in 2012. In this study, reports(More)
In this review we outline the unique effects of the autacoid adenosine in the kidney. Adenosine is present in the cytosol of renal cells and in the extracellular space of normoxic kidneys. Extracellular adenosine can derive from cellular adenosine release or extracellular breakdown of ATP, AMP, or cAMP. It is generated at enhanced rates when tubular NaCl(More)
BACKGROUND Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of legal blindness in elderly populations of industrialised countries. Bevacizumab (Avastin®) and ranibizumab (Lucentis®) are targeted biological drugs (a monoclonal antibody) that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor, an angiogenic cytokine that promotes vascular(More)
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Dopamine receptors are involved in the regulation of renal hemodynamics and may play a role in diabetes-induced hyperfiltration. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the renal effect of a dopamine D3 receptor antagonist (D3-RA) in hypertensive type II diabetic SHR/N-cp rats. Lean and(More)
The renal effects of the D3 receptor agonist R(+)-7-hydroxy-dipropyl-aminotetraline (7-OH-DPAT) were studied in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats using standard clearance experiments. 7-OH-DPAT infusion (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) dose-dependently increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to baseline by a maximum of 20+/-2% while(More)
It is well accepted that dopamine receptors play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular and kidney function. Most of the knowledge on the renal actions of dopamine has been accumulated focussing on the prototypes of the two known dopamine receptor subfamilies, i.e. D1 and D2. The dopamine D3 receptor is a member of the D2-like subfamily and(More)
Alterations in the dopaminergic system may contribute to the development of hypertension. Recently, it has been reported that pentobarbital-anesthetized mice with deficient dopamine D(3) receptors showed renin-dependent elevation in blood pressure. In a series of experiments, we evaluated the contribution of the dopamine D(3) receptor to the renal sodium(More)
Dopamine D2-like receptors, including D2, D3, and D4 receptors, are involved in the regulation of glomerular hyperfiltration due to diabetes mellitus. These hemodynamic alterations represent a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the D3 receptor subtype modulates the(More)