Bernd Ludwig

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The crystal structure at 2.8 A resolution of the four protein subunits containing cytochrome c oxidase from the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, complexed with antibody Fv fragment, is described. Subunit I contains 12 membrane-spanning, primarily helical segments and binds haem a and the haem a3-copper B binuclear centre where molecular oxygen is(More)
Asparagine 131, located near the cytoplasmic entrance of the D-pathway in subunit I of the Paracoccus denitrificans aa(3) cytochrome c oxidase, is a residue crucial for proton pumping. When replaced by an aspartate, the mutant enzyme is completely decoupled: while retaining full cytochrome c oxidation activity, it does not pump protons. The same phenotype(More)
The Rieske [2Fe-2S] protein (ISP) is an essential subunit of cytochrome bc(1) complexes in mitochondrial and bacterial respiratory chains. Based on the presence of two consecutive arginines, it was argued that the ISP of Paracoccus denitrificans, a Gram-negative soil bacterium, is inserted into the cytoplasmic membrane via the twin-arginine translocation(More)
The aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidases from mitochondria and bacteria contain a cation-binding site located in subunit I near heme a. In the oxidases from Paracoccus denitrificans or Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the site is occupied by tightly bound calcium, whereas the mitochondrial oxidase binds reversibly calcium or sodium that compete with each other. The(More)
Heme-copper terminal oxidases use the free energy of oxygen reduction to establish a transmembrane proton gradient. While the molecular mechanism of coupling electron transfer to proton pumping is still under debate, recent structure determinations and mutagenesis studies have provided evidence for two pathways for protons within subunit I of this class of(More)
Stable supercomplexes of bacterial respiratory chain complexes III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) have been isolated as early as 1985 (Berry, E. A., and Trumpower, B. L. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2458-2467). However, these assemblies did not comprise complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Using the mild detergent(More)
Cytochome c oxidase is the terminal member of the electron transport chains of mitochondria and many bacteria. Providing an efficient mechanism for dioxygen reduction on the one hand, it also acts as a redox-linked proton pump, coupling the free energy of water formation to the generation of a transmembrane electrochemical gradient to eventually drive ATP(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis in subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidase (haem aa3) from Paracoccus denitrificans reveals that two carboxylic residues, Glu-246 and Asp-206 (corresponding to 198 and 158 in the bovine subunit II), are involved in the binding of cytochrome c. Spectrophotometric and polarographic measurements with the isolated enzymes of both mutant(More)
The crystal structure of a non-specific porin from Paracoccus denitrificans at 3.1 A resolution has been solved by molecular replacement using the porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica as the search model. Paracoccus porin is very similar to other non-specific porins of known structure: a trimer of 16 stranded beta-barrels each with a central pore(More)
To investigate the contribution of hydrophobic residues to the molecular recognition of cytochrome c with cytochrome oxidase, we mutated several hydrophobic amino acids exposed on subunit II of the Paracoccus denitrificans oxidase. KM and kcat values and the bimolecular rate constant were determined under steady- or presteady-state conditions, respectively.(More)