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Assessing the safety of pharmacotherapies is a primary goal of clinical trials in drug development. The low frequency of relevant side effects, however, often poses a significant challenge for risk assessment. Methodologies allowing robust extrapolation of safety statistics based on preclinical data and information from clinical trials with limited numbers(More)
During HIV/SIV infection, there is widespread programmed cell death in infected and, perhaps more importantly, uninfected cells. Much of this apoptosis is mediated by Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) interactions. Previously we demonstrated in macaques that induction of FasL expression and apoptotic cell death of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by SIV is dependent on a(More)
In the infected host, the Nef protein of HIV/SIV is required for high viral loads and thus disease progression. Recent evidence indicates that Nef enhances replication in the T cell compartment after the virus is transmitted from dendritic cells (DC). The underlying mechanism, however, is not clear. Here, we report that a natural variability in the(More)
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