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Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify(More)
BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be(More)
BACKGROUND Children in low-income settings suffering from frequent diarrhoea episodes are also at a high risk of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). We explored whether this is due to common risk factors for both conditions or whether diarrhoea can increase the risk of ALRI directly. METHODS We used a dynamic time-to-event analysis of data from two(More)
BACKGROUND A city-wide sanitation intervention was started in Salvador, Brazil, in 1997 to improve sewerage coverage from 26% of households to 80%. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiological effect of this city-wide sanitation programme on diarrhoea morbidity in children less than 3 years of age. METHODS The investigation was composed of two(More)
BACKGROUND Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. OBJECTIVES We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic diseases cause a large and increasing burden in developed countries and in urban centres in middle-income countries. The causes of this increase are unknown and, currently, there are no interventions to prevent the development of allergic diseases. The 'hygiene hypothesis' has tried to explain the increase through a reduction in the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies on physical activity interventions in preschools have reported limited effectiveness. Participatory community-based approaches hold promise for increasing intervention effectiveness and involving parents as key stakeholders in a sustainable way. PURPOSE To assess whether a participatory parent-focused approach using parents as(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring recurrent infections such as diarrhoea or respiratory infections in epidemiological studies is a methodological challenge. Problems in measuring the incidence of recurrent infections include the episode definition, recall error, and the logistics of close follow up. Longitudinal prevalence (LP), the proportion-of-time-ill estimated by(More)
Animal studies suggest that perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may alter sexual maturation. Relationships of human PFC exposure with puberty are not clear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were associated with indicators of sexual maturation in a 2005-2006 survey of residents(More)
Although cytomegalovirus infection is the most common infection transmitted via the placenta, there are no guidelines for routine screening to detect children congenitally infected with cytomegalovirus. From 1993 to 1997, maternal serum and cord vein blood of newborns was screened for HCMV-IgM (n = 21,183). Urine was examined for HCMV-excretion during the(More)