Bernd Genser

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Animal studies suggest that perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may alter sexual maturation. Relationships of human PFC exposure with puberty are not clear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were associated with indicators of sexual maturation in a 2005-2006 survey of residents(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries offer a second BCG vaccination to prevent tuberculosis, although there is little evidence of whether this confers additional protection. BCG vaccination is routine in Brazil but BCG revaccination procedures vary by state. We studied revaccination efficacy in two Brazilian cities with tuberculosis prevalence representative of(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised(More)
BACKGROUND Children in low-income settings suffering from frequent diarrhoea episodes are also at a high risk of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). We explored whether this is due to common risk factors for both conditions or whether diarrhoea can increase the risk of ALRI directly. METHODS We used a dynamic time-to-event analysis of data from two(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic diseases cause a large and increasing burden in developed countries and in urban centres in middle-income countries. The causes of this increase are unknown and, currently, there are no interventions to prevent the development of allergic diseases. The 'hygiene hypothesis' has tried to explain the increase through a reduction in the(More)
Although cytomegalovirus infection is the most common infection transmitted via the placenta, there are no guidelines for routine screening to detect children congenitally infected with cytomegalovirus. From 1993 to 1997, maternal serum and cord vein blood of newborns was screened for HCMV-IgM (n = 21,183). Urine was examined for HCMV-excretion during the(More)
BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be(More)
The impact of increased serum concentrations of plant sterols on cardiovascular risk is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between serum concentrations of two common plant sterols (sitosterol, campesterol) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We systematically searched the databases(More)
BACKGROUND Homoarginine is a novel biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. In the present large cohort study, we evaluate how homoarginine is linked to kidney function and examine the potential interaction of homoarginine and kidney function as predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS Serum homoarginine (mean: 2.41 ± 1.05 µmol/L), cystatin C and(More)
BACKGROUND Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. OBJECTIVES We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations(More)