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Inflammation, a vital response of the immune system to infection and damage to tissues, can be initiated by various germline-encoded innate immune-signaling receptors. Among these, the inflammasomes are critical for activation of the potent proinflammatory interleukin-1 cytokine family. Additionally, inflammasomes can trigger and maintain inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence(More)
In the last few years, the study of microparticles (MPs) - submicron vesicles released from cells upon activation or apoptosis - has gained growing interest in the field of inflammation and in infectious diseases. Their role in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax remains unexplored. Because acute vivax malaria has been related to pro-inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating microRNAs (miRs) are differentially regulated and selectively packaged into microparticles (MPs). We evaluated whether diabetes mellitus alters circulating vascular and endothelial MP-incorporated miRs expression levels. METHODS AND RESULTS Circulating MPs were isolated from 135 patients with or without diabetes mellitus type II and(More)
Malaria-induced sepsis is associated with an intense proinflammatory cytokinemia for which the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that experimental infection of humans with Plasmodium falciparum primes Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated proinflammatory responses. Nevertheless, the relevance of this phenomenon during natural(More)
Excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells is an important component of the pathogenic basis of malaria. Proinflammatory cytokines are a direct output of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation during microbial infection. Thus, interference with TLR function is likely to render a better clinical outcome by preventing their aberrant(More)
Cyclic paroxysm and high fever are hallmarks of malaria and are associated with high levels of pyrogenic cytokines, including IL-1β. In this report, we describe a signature for the expression of inflammasome-related genes and caspase-1 activation in malaria. Indeed, when we infected mice, Plasmodium infection was sufficient to promote MyD88-mediated(More)
AIMS Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) are increased in diabetic patients, but their potential contribution in atherogenesis is unclear. We sought to determine the role of EMP derived under high glucose conditions in the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS EMP were(More)
We investigated the role of different TLRs and MyD88 in host resistance to infection and malaria pathogenesis. TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR6(-/-), TLR9(-/-) or CD14(-/-) mice showed no change in phenotypes (parasitemia, body weight and temperature) when infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS). MyD88(-/-) mice displayed comparable ability to wild type(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important to initiate the innate immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. The protective role of TLRs during infection with protozoan parasites has been established. In this regard, malaria represents an exception where activation of TLRs seems to be deleterious to the host. In this article, we review the recent(More)