Bernardo A Mainou

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We performed experiments to determine the effect of PKR activation on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication. We first determined that RSV infection activates PKR which induces the phosphorylation of eIF2α, resulting in the formation of host stress granules. We used RNA interference to decrease endogenous PKR levels. RSV replication was not altered(More)
Neurotropic viruses, including mammalian reovirus, must disseminate from an initial site of replication to the central nervous system (CNS), often binding multiple receptors to facilitate systemic spread. Reovirus engages junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) to disseminate hematogenously. However, JAM-A is dispensable for reovirus replication in the CNS.(More)
UNLABELLED Most viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells form neo-organelles that serve as sites of viral genome replication and particle assembly. These highly specialized structures concentrate viral replication proteins and nucleic acids, prevent the activation of cell-intrinsic defenses, and coordinate the release of progeny particles.(More)
Reovirus cell entry is initiated by viral attachment to cell surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule A. Following receptor engagement, reovirus is internalized into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis using a process dependent on β1 integrin. Endocytosed virions undergo stepwise disassembly catalyzed by cathepsin proteases, followed by endosomal(More)
Reovirus cell entry is mediated by attachment to cell surface carbohydrate and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) and internalization by beta1 integrin. The beta1 integrin cytoplasmic tail contains two NPXY motifs, which function in recruitment of adaptor proteins and clathrin for endocytosis and serve as sorting signals for internalized cargo. As(More)
The ubiquitous herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to the development of several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered the EBV oncogene as it is necessary for EBV-induced transformation of B lymphocytes and is able to transform Rat-1 fibroblasts. LMP1 can activate a wide array of(More)
Rab GTPases play an essential role in vesicular transport by coordinating the movement of various types of cargo from one cellular compartment to another. Individual Rab GTPases are distributed to specific organelles and thus serve as markers for discrete types of endocytic vesicles. Mammalian reovirus binds to cell surface glycans and junctional adhesion(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene is considered the EBV oncogene as it is necessary for EBV-mediated transformation of B lymphocytes and itself transforms rodent fibroblasts. LMP1 activates the NF-kappaB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase signaling(More)
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein, activates NF-kappaB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling. To determine global transcriptional changes induced by LMP1 in epithelial cells, genomic analysis of C33A cells stably expressing LMP1 was performed. Relatively few(More)
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are prototype members of the Reoviridae family of nonenveloped viruses. Reoviruses contain ten double-stranded RNA gene segments enclosed in two concentric protein shells, outer capsid and core. These viruses serve as a versatile experimental system for studies of virus cell entry, innate immunity, and organ-specific(More)