Bernard W. Downs

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Using fMRI, Menon and Levitin [9] clearly found for the first time that listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as the hypothalamus, and insula, which are thought to be involved in regulating(More)
We hypothesize that pathological aggression, a complex behavioral disorder, in adolescents may in part involve polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system. While a number of neurotransmitter systems must be involved, due to polygenic inheritance, one major pathway should involve the dopaminergic system. Advances in our knowledge of the neurobiology of(More)
BACKGROUND It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals there is "dopamine resistance" associated with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Based on earlier studies, evidence is emerging wherein the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may play a significant role in the recovery of individuals with reward(More)
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS It is well known that after prolonged abstinence, individuals who use their drug of choice experience a powerful euphoria that often precipitates relapse. While a biological explanation for this conundrum has remained elusive, we hypothesize that this clinically observed "supersensitivity" might be tied to genetic dopaminergic(More)
Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for(More)
Advances in our knowledge of the neurobiology of aggression have given rise to rational pharmacological treatments for these behaviors. The main biological systems which are known to be involved are certain reward neurotransmitters that include serotonin (5HT), opioid peptides (END), gamma-aminobutyric acid (γABA), and the catecholamines (dopamine [DA] and(More)
There are common genetic mechanisms responsible for both drug effects and subsequent seeking behavior. In 1996, we coined the term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). Past and current treatment of substance seeking behavior, a subtype of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), is considered by most to be inadequate. Recently, we evaluated a complex named(More)
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS Based on neurochemical and genetic evidence, we suggest that both prevention and treatment of multiple addictions, such as dependence to alcohol, nicotine and glucose, should involve a biphasic approach. Thus, acute treatment should consist of preferential blocking of postsynaptic Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) dopamine receptors (D1-D5),(More)
While it is well established that the principal ascending pathways for pain originate in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the medulla, the control and sensitivity to pain may reside in additional neurological loci, especially in the mesolimbic system of the brain (i.e., a reward center), and a number of genes and associated polymorphisms may indeed(More)
It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals, there is dopamine resistance due to an association with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Evidence is emerging whereby the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may find its place in recovery from reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) in patients addicted to(More)