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Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS(More)
M1 protein contributes to Group A Streptococcus (GAS) systemic virulence by interfering with phagocytosis and through proinflammatory activities when released from the cell surface. Here we identify a novel role of M1 protein in the stimulation of neutrophil and mast cell extracellular trap formation, yet also subsequent survival of the pathogen within(More)
The group A Streptococcus (GAS) sof gene encodes the serum opacity factor protein, which is capable of opacifying mammalian sera and binding at least two host proteins, fibronectin and fibrinogen. The sof gene exists in approximately 50% of clinical isolates, and there is a classical association of so-called nephritogenic strains with the opacity(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in serotype prevalence among pneumococcal populations result from both serotype replacement and serotype (capsular) switching. Temporal changes in serotype distributions are well documented, but the contribution of capsular switching to such changes is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent vaccine-induced selective pressures(More)
The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the United States (US) in 2000 and has significantly reduced invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the incidence of nonvaccine serotype invasive disease, particularly due to serotype 19A, has increased. The serotype 19A increase can be explained in part by expansion of a genotype that(More)
BACKGROUND When seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the USA, many children were vaccinated on schedules that differed from those tested in clinical trials. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine against various pneumococcal serotypes, and to measure the effectiveness of the recommended dose schedule and of catch-up(More)
BACKGROUND We encountered three patients with severe necrotising soft tissue infections due to beta-haemolytic group G streptococcus. Due to strong clinical similarities with invasive infections produced by group A streptococcus, we investigated a potential link of shared beta-haemolytic phenotype to disease pathogenesis. METHODS Hybridisation, DNA(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae ('pneumococcus') causes an estimated 14.5 million cases of serious disease and 826,000 deaths annually in children under 5 years of age(1). The highly effective introduction of the PCV7 pneumococcal vaccine in 2000 in the United States(2,3) provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the response of an important pathogen to(More)
This report discusses the following issues related to typing of group A streptococci (GAS): The development and use of the 5' emm variable region sequencing (emm typing) in relation to the existing serologic typing system; the designation of emm types in relation to M types; a system for validation of new emm types; criteria for validation of provisional M(More)