Bernard P. Schimmer

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A. Overview of steroidogenesis B. SF-1 and the regulation of steroidogenesis C. Cloning and structural characterization of SF-1 1. Structural features of SF-1 2. Multiple transcripts are encoded by the gene encoding SF-1 3. The gene encoding SF-1 is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates III. Characterization of Sites of SF-1 Expression(More)
The human adrenal cortex is a complex endocrine organ that secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids arise from morphologically and biochemically distinct zones of the adrenal gland. Studying secretion of these distinct steroid hormones can make use of cells isolated from the adrenal gland but this requires animal(More)
The orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, also called Ad4BP and officially designated NR5A1) has emerged as an essential regulator of endocrine development and function. Initially identified as a tissue-specific transcriptional regulator of the cytochrome P450 steroid hydroxylases, SF-1 has considerably broader roles, as evidenced from(More)
The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) inhibits the growth of Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells as well as normal adrenocortical cells in culture but stimulates adrenocortical cell growth in vivo. In this study, we investigated this paradoxical effect of ACTH on cell proliferation in Y1 adrenal cells and have unmasked a growth-promoting effect of the(More)
Two groups of mutant clones were isolated from YI adrenocortical tumor cells. One group, Y1(Kin), exhibited altered cytosolic cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity; the second group, Y1(Cyc), exhibited diminished corticotropin-responsive adenylate cyclase activity. Steroidogenic responses to corticotropin and cyclic nucleotides closely paralleled(More)
The Y1 adrenocortical tumor cell mutants, Kin-7 and Kin-8, harbor point mutations in the regulatory subunit (RI) of the type 1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMPdPK) that render the enzyme resistant to activation by cAMP. These mutants also are resistant to many of the regulatory effects of ACTH and cAMP. In order to examine the causal relationships(More)
The adrenal glands are comprised of two distinct endocrine organs: the outer cortex, which is derived from mesoderm and synthesizes steroid hormones, and the inner medulla, which contains neuroectodermal cells derived from the neural crest and produces the catecholamine hormones norepinephrine and epinephrine. The developmental program that gives rise to(More)
Steroid hormone biosynthesis requires the concerted action of a related group of cytochrome P-450 steroid hydroxylases. In recent years considerable effort has been directed toward defining the molecular basis for the cell-selective expression of these genes and their transcriptional regulation by trophic hormones. The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1, acting(More)
The S region of the murine major histocompatibility complex contains two structurally related genes (21-OHase A and 21-OHase B) that encode 21-hydroxylase (21-OHase), an enzyme essential for the synthesis of adrenal steroids. Expression of these two genes has been analyzed by using oligonucleotide probes specific for the 21-OHase A and B genes and by(More)