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Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The(More)
The turtle shell, an evolutionarily novel structure, contains a bony exoskeleton that includes a dorsal carapace and a ventral plastron. The development of the carapace is dependent on the carapacial ridge (CR), a bulge in the dorsal flank that contains an ectodermal structure analogous to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the developing limb (Burke.(More)
The migrating cranial neural crest cells of birds, fish, and mammals have been shown to form the membranous bones of the cranium and face. These findings have been extrapolated to suggest that all the dermal bones of the vertebrate exoskeleton are derived from the neural crest ectomesenchyme. However, only one group of extant animals, the Chelonians, has an(More)
Nav1.8 (also known as PN3) is a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTx-r) voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) that is highly expressed on small diameter sensory neurons and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Recent studies using an Nav1.8 antisense oligonucleotide in an animal model of chronic pain indicated that selective(More)
Mammalian hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hemoproteins with highly variable half-lives. CYP3A4, the dominant human liver drug-metabolizing enzyme, and its rat liver orthologs undergo ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation after suicide inactivation or after heterologous expression in Saccharomyces(More)
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