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Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Poxviridae, is a large DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The assembly pathway of vaccinia virus displays several unique features, such as the production of two structurally distinct, infectious forms. One of these, termed intracellular naked virus (INV), remains cells associated while the(More)
Erythromelagia is a condition characterized by attacks of burning pain and inflammation in the extremeties. An epidemic form of this syndrome occurs in secondary students in rural China and a virus referred to as erythromelalgia-associated poxvirus (ERPV) was reported to have been recovered from throat swabs in 1987. Studies performed at the time suggested(More)
The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to contribute to viral clearance and liver cell injury during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Using a strategy involving the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with HBV-derived synthetic peptides containing HLA-A2.1, -A31, and -Aw68 binding motifs, we have previously described CTL(More)
Many tumor-associated antigens are nonmutated, poorly immunogenic tissue differentiation antigens. Their weak immunogenicity may be due to "self"-tolerance. To induce autoreactive T cells, we studied immune responses to gp100/pmel 17, an antigen naturally expressed by both normal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Although a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)(More)
Human cytotoxic T cells specific for influenza A virus were tested for recognition of each of the ten influenza A virus proteins expressed in target cells using recombinant vaccinia viruses. They recognized the matrix M1, polymerase PB2, and nucleoproteins of influenza virus in association with MHC class I antigens. These internal viral proteins were seen(More)
The envelope protein (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 forms homo-oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum. The oligomeric structure of Env is maintained after cleavage in a Golgi compartment and transport to the surfaces of infected cells, where incorporation into budding virions takes place. Here, we use biophysical techniques to assess the(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate(More)
The vaccinia virus late stage-specific transcription factor P3 was purified to homogeneity from HeLa cells that were infected in the presence of an inhibitor of viral DNA replication. The purified 36-kDa protein was digested with trypsin, and the peptides were analyzed by mass spectroscopy and amino-terminal sequencing. The purified factor was identified as(More)