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Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Poxviridae, is a large DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The assembly pathway of vaccinia virus displays several unique features, such as the production of two structurally distinct, infectious forms. One of these, termed intracellular naked virus (INV), remains cells associated while the(More)
Several polypeptides are secreted into the medium of cells infected with vaccinia virus, a cytoplasmic DNA virus belonging to the poxvirus family. One of these, a polypeptide of relative molecular mass 19,000 is structurally related to epidermal growth factor and binds to epidermal growth factor receptor stimulating proliferation of uninfected cells in(More)
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) commonly causes asymptomatic cutaneous neoplasms in children and sexually active adults as well as persistent opportunistic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated disease. Sequencing the 190-kilobase pair genome of MCV has now revealed that the virus potentially encodes 163 proteins, of which 103 have homologs(More)
Recombinant retroviral vectors producing multicistronic mRNAs were constructed. Picornavirus putative internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) were used to confer cap-independent translation of an internal cistron. Internal cistrons were engineered by ligation of various lengths of the IRES of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus or polio virus to the E. coli(More)
The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of(More)
Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce(More)
The DNA replication requirement for vaccinia virus late gene expression was mimicked by transfecting a late promoter-controlled reporter gene into infected cells in the presence of a DNA synthesis inhibitor. This late promoter activation block was overcome by cotransfecting either naked linear vaccinia virion DNA or three cloned viral genes encoding(More)
In H-2d mice, the immunodominant determinant of the HIV-1-IIIB gp160 envelope glycoprotein recognized by CD8+ CTL is represented by a 15-residue synthetic peptide (315-329: RIQRGPGRAFVTIGK). This peptide is seen in association with the Dd class I MHC molecule expressed on H-2k L cell fibroblast targets. We explored the structural requirements for CTL(More)
Mast cells (MCs) are well-known effectors of allergic reactions and are considered sentinels in the skin and mucosa. In addition, through their production of cathelicidin, MCs have the capacity to oppose invading pathogens. We therefore hypothesized that MCs could act as sentinels in the skin against viral infections using antimicrobial peptides. In this(More)
Vaccinia virus is being investigated as a replicating vector for tumor-directed gene therapy. However, the majority of cancer patients have preformed immunologic reactivity against vaccinia virus, as a result of smallpox vaccination, which may limit its use as a vector. The Yaba-like disease (YLD) virus was investigated here as an alternative, replicating(More)