Learn More
DNA coding for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase was ligated to a vaccinia virus transcriptional promoter and integrated within the vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and stably expressed T7 RNA polymerase in mammalian cells. Target genes were constructed by inserting DNA segments that code for beta-galactosidase or(More)
Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Poxviridae, is a large DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The assembly pathway of vaccinia virus displays several unique features, such as the production of two structurally distinct, infectious forms. One of these, termed intracellular naked virus (INV), remains cells associated while the(More)
Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) superfamily are potent regulators of apoptosis, a process that is important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that TNFR-1 and Fas and TRAIL receptors can also trigger an alternative form of cell death that is morphologically distinct from apoptosis. Because distinct(More)
Monkeypox virus (MPV) belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae, is endemic in parts of Africa, and causes a human disease that resembles smallpox. The 196,858-bp MPV genome was analyzed with regard to structural features and open reading frames. Each end of the genome contains an identical but oppositely oriented 6379-bp terminal inverted(More)
The roles of intracellular naked (INV), cell-associated enveloped (CEV), and extracellular enveloped (EEV) forms of vaccinia virus in cell-to-cell and longer-range spread were investigated by using two closely related strains of vaccinia virus, WR and IHD-J. We confirmed previous results that WR and IHD-J produced similar amounts of INV and formed(More)
We developed a stringently regulated expression system for mammalian cells that uses (i) the RNA polymerase, phi 10 promoter, and T phi transcriptional terminator of bacteriophage T7; (ii) the lac repressor, lac operator, rho-independent transcriptional terminators and the gpt gene of Escherichia coli; (iii) the RNA translational enhancer of(More)
Because cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) may be important for preventing direct cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, we have begun to investigate the epitope specificity and immune response (Ir) gene control of anti-HIV CTL responses in experimental animals. Mice were(More)
Previous work demonstrated that intracellular enveloped vaccinia virus virions use microtubules to move from the site of membrane wrapping to the cell periphery. The mechanism and direction of intracellular virion movement predicted that viral proteins directly or indirectly interact with the microtubule motor protein kinesin. The yeast two-hybrid assay was(More)
Site-specific mutagenesis was used to introduce amino acid substitutions at the asparagine codons of four conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites within the gp120 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One of these alterations resulted in the production of noninfectious virus particles. The amino acid substitution did not interfere(More)
We constructed a plasmid coexpression vector that directs the insertion of a foreign gene of interest together with the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta gal) gene into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus of the vaccinia virus genome. Tissue culture cells that had been infected with vaccinia virus were transfected with a plasmid vector containing a(More)