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DNA coding for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase was ligated to a vaccinia virus transcriptional promoter and integrated within the vaccinia virus genome. The recombinant vaccinia virus retained infectivity and stably expressed T7 RNA polymerase in mammalian cells. Target genes were constructed by inserting DNA segments that code for beta-galactosidase or(More)
Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Poxviridae, is a large DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The assembly pathway of vaccinia virus displays several unique features, such as the production of two structurally distinct, infectious forms. One of these, termed intracellular naked virus (INV), remains cells associated while the(More)
Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) superfamily are potent regulators of apoptosis, a process that is important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that TNFR-1 and Fas and TRAIL receptors can also trigger an alternative form of cell death that is morphologically distinct from apoptosis. Because distinct(More)
The roles of intracellular naked (INV), cell-associated enveloped (CEV), and extracellular enveloped (EEV) forms of vaccinia virus in cell-to-cell and longer-range spread were investigated by using two closely related strains of vaccinia virus, WR and IHD-J. We confirmed previous results that WR and IHD-J produced similar amounts of INV and formed(More)
We constructed a plasmid coexpression vector that directs the insertion of a foreign gene of interest together with the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta gal) gene into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus of the vaccinia virus genome. Tissue culture cells that had been infected with vaccinia virus were transfected with a plasmid vector containing a(More)
Monkeypox virus (MPV) belongs to the orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae, is endemic in parts of Africa, and causes a human disease that resembles smallpox. The 196,858-bp MPV genome was analyzed with regard to structural features and open reading frames. Each end of the genome contains an identical but oppositely oriented 6379-bp terminal inverted(More)
We developed a stringently regulated expression system for mammalian cells that uses (i) the RNA polymerase, phi 10 promoter, and T phi transcriptional terminator of bacteriophage T7; (ii) the lac repressor, lac operator, rho-independent transcriptional terminators and the gpt gene of Escherichia coli; (iii) the RNA translational enhancer of(More)
Deep RNA sequencing was used to simultaneously analyze vaccinia virus (VACV) and HeLa cell transcriptomes at progressive times following infection. VACV, the prototypic member of the poxvirus family, replicates in the cytoplasm and contains a double-stranded DNA genome with approximately 200 closely spaced open reading frames (ORFs). The acquisition of a(More)
Heterologous prime/boost regimens have the potential for raising high levels of immune responses. Here, we report that DNA priming followed by a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) booster has controlled a highly pathogenic immunodeficiency virus challenge in a Rhesus macaque model. Both the DNA and rMVA components of the vaccine expressed multiple(More)
  • G Sutter, B Moss
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1992
Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that has been safety tested in humans, was evaluated for use as an expression vector. MVA has multiple genomic deletions and is severely host cell restricted: it grows well in avian cells but is unable to multiply in human and most other mammalian cells tested. Nevertheless, we found(More)