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Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Poxviridae, is a large DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The assembly pathway of vaccinia virus displays several unique features, such as the production of two structurally distinct, infectious forms. One of these, termed intracellular naked virus (INV), remains cells associated while the(More)
Several polypeptides are secreted into the medium of cells infected with vaccinia virus, a cytoplasmic DNA virus belonging to the poxvirus family. One of these, a polypeptide of relative molecular mass 19,000 is structurally related to epidermal growth factor and binds to epidermal growth factor receptor stimulating proliferation of uninfected cells in(More)
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) commonly causes asymptomatic cutaneous neoplasms in children and sexually active adults as well as persistent opportunistic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated disease. Sequencing the 190-kilobase pair genome of MCV has now revealed that the virus potentially encodes 163 proteins, of which 103 have homologs(More)
Recombinant retroviral vectors producing multicistronic mRNAs were constructed. Picornavirus putative internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) were used to confer cap-independent translation of an internal cistron. Internal cistrons were engineered by ligation of various lengths of the IRES of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus or polio virus to the E. coli(More)
The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of(More)
Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce(More)
Mast cells (MCs) are well-known effectors of allergic reactions and are considered sentinels in the skin and mucosa. In addition, through their production of cathelicidin, MCs have the capacity to oppose invading pathogens. We therefore hypothesized that MCs could act as sentinels in the skin against viral infections using antimicrobial peptides. In this(More)
Vaccinia virus is being investigated as a replicating vector for tumor-directed gene therapy. However, the majority of cancer patients have preformed immunologic reactivity against vaccinia virus, as a result of smallpox vaccination, which may limit its use as a vector. The Yaba-like disease (YLD) virus was investigated here as an alternative, replicating(More)
We have investigated the organization of transcriptional units within a 9000 bp segment of the terminally repeated region of the DNA genome of vaccinia virus, which uses its own enzyme system to synthesize mRNA within the cytoplasm of infected cells. RNA splicing, which has been demonstrated for DNA viruses that replicate within the nucleus of infected(More)
Vaccinia virus DNA contains a long inverted terminal repetition of MW approximately 6.8 x 10(6). A fragment of MW 6.3 X 10(6) from this repetition has been cloned in coliphage lambda and used to isolate RNA from virus-infected cells. Electron microscopy indicates that early RNAs are transcribed from the repeated sequence and cell-free translation shows that(More)