Bernard Laarveld

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A germ-free neonatal pig model was established to determine the effects of bacterial colonization by different species on small intestinal morphology and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Two experimental groups of 16 pigs were aseptically delivered by cesarian section and allocated into 4 gnotobiotic isolators. Pigs were either maintained germ-free(More)
Among wild ruminants, muskoxen have an exceptional ability to fatten, but their pregnancy rates are variable and often low. To test whether the likelihood of pregnancy in muskoxen is associated with exceptionally good body condition, we used logistic regression analysis with data from 32 pregnant and 18 nonpregnant muskoxen > or = 1.5 yr of age shot in(More)
Saponins extracted from the seed of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) were studied for their ability to act as mucosal adjuvants upon their intragastric or intranasal administration together with model antigens in mice. Quinoa saponins, co-administered intragastrically or intranasally with cholera toxin or ovalbumin, potentiated specific IgG and IgA antibody(More)
Broiler diets are frequently fortified with vitamin D (D3) above the recommended levels in an attempt to prevent commonly occurring leg problems. Since the basal levels of dietary D3 are rarely known, there is a risk of over-supplementation. Over-supplementation of D3 has been shown to have detrimental effects on the heart. Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a(More)
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of the level of dietary crude protein and protein source on intestinal populations of Clostridium perfringens in broilers. In experiment 1, 6 groups of 12 birds were fed diets containing 230,315 or 400 g/kg crude protein with soy protein concentrate (SPC) or low-temperature-dried fishmeal as the major(More)
The present study revealed several previously not recognized etiological details in the development of necrotic enteritis (NE) in broilers. We provide evidence that the pathological process leading to mucosal epithelium necrosis follows morphologically distinct phases commencing at the basal domain of the mucosal epithelium and then progressively invading(More)
The effect of segregated early weaning (SEW) on postweaning small intestinal development was investigated in SEW and control (CON) pigs. Small intestines were collected from a total of 15 pigs killed at 11 (preweaning), 15 (3 d postweaning), and 34 d of age. At 3 d postweaning, the SEW and CON pigs had shorter villi (P<.01), deeper crypts (P<.01), and(More)
Dietary guar gum and cellulose were studied as purified soluble and insoluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) sources, respectively. A control diet containing 14% cornstarch was formulated. A 7% guar gum, a 7% cellulose, and a 7% guar gum + 7% cellulose diet were formulated by adding the NSP to the control diet at the expense of cornstarch (wt/wt), forming a(More)
This study examined the putative role of blood vessel pathology in the development of ascites in broilers. Major blood vessels (aorta, brachiocephalic arteries, pulmonary arteries, and vena cava) from normal commercial male broiler chickens, and broilers that developed congestive heart failure (CHF) with or without ascites were subjected to gross and(More)
The effect of beta-glucan, extracted from oats, on the enhancement of resistance to infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Eimeria vermiformis was studied in mice. In vitro study using macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity showed that beta-glucan treatment significantly enhanced phagocytic activity. In vivo study further demonstrated that(More)