Bernard J Crespi

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Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically(More)
Parallel evolution of similar traits in independent populations that inhabit ecologically similar environments strongly implicates natural selection as the cause of evolution. Parallel speciation is a special form of parallel evolution where traits that determine reproductive isolation evolve repeatedly, in closely related populations, as by-products of(More)
The phylogeny of salmonid fishes has been the focus of intensive study for many years, but some of the most important relationships within this group remain unclear. We used 269 Genbank sequences of mitochondrial DNA (from 16 genes) and nuclear DNA (from nine genes) to infer phylogenies for 30 species of salmonids. We used maximum parsimony and maximum(More)
Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the process of speciation but few studies have elucidated the mechanisms either driving or constraining the evolution of reproductive isolation. In theory, the direct effects of reinforcing selection for increased mating discrimination where interbreeding produces hybrid offspring with low fitness and the(More)
We describe a new hypothesis for the development of autism, that it is driven by imbalances in brain development involving enhanced effects of paternally expressed imprinted genes, deficits of effects from maternally expressed genes, or both. This hypothesis is supported by: (1) the strong genomic-imprinting component to the genetic and developmental(More)
Speciation of plant-feeding insects is typically associated with host-plant shifts, with subsequent divergent selection and adaptation to the ecological conditions associated with the new plant. However, a few insect groups have apparently undergone speciation while remaining on the same host-plant species, and such radiations may provide novel insights(More)
We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that parent-offspring conflict over the degree of maternal investment has been one of the main selective factors in the evolution of vertebrate reproductive mode. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that the assumptions of parent-offspring conflict theory are met for relevant taxa; the high number of(More)
Ecologists and evolutionary biologists accustomed to working among macroscopic creatures might find the world of microorganisms a very unusual place. However, many recent discoveries in microbial ecology and evolution would be strangely familiar to macrobiologists; for example, COOPERATION (see Glossary), DIVISION OF LABOR, EUSOCIALITY, CHEATING, complex(More)
Analysis of DNA sequence data from four genes (Elongation Factor-1 , wingless, 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I ) yielded a well-resolved, well-supported phylogeny for all 21 species of gall-inducing thrips found on Australian Acacia. This phylogeny was then used to investigate the evolution of various behavioural and life history traits, and to examine(More)
Species richness on island or islandlike systems is a function of colonization, within-island speciation, and extinction. Here we evaluate the relative importance of the first two of these processes as a function of the biogeographical and ecological attributes of islands using the Galápagos endemic land snails of the genus Bulimulus, the most species-rich(More)