Sergei B Yakushin36
Mingjia Dai16
36Sergei B Yakushin
16Mingjia Dai
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Luigi Galvani spent 20 years conducting experiments to demonstrate electrical conductivity of nerves and muscles before publishing his major treatise on the subject in 1791 (Galvani, 1791). His personal friend and professional nemesis Count Alessandro Volta held a respectful but opposing view, that nerve and muscle tissues simply serve as passive(More)
The purpose of this paper is to review the kinematics and dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in three dimensions. We give a brief, didactic tutorial on vectors and matrices and their importance as representational schemes for describing the kinematics and dynamics of the angular and linear accelerations that activate the vestibular system. We(More)
  • Gay R. Holstein, Victor L. Friedrich Jr., Giorgio P. Martinelli, Dmitri Ogorodnikov, Sergei B. Yakushin, Bernard Cohen
  • 2012
The vestibular system sends projections to brainstem autonomic nuclei that modulate heart rate and blood pressure in response to changes in head and body position with regard to gravity. Consistent with this, binaural sinusoidally modulated galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) in humans causes vasoconstriction in the legs, while low frequency (0.02-0.04(More)
Tilting the head in roll to or from the upright while rotating at a constant velocity (roll while rotating, RWR) alters the position of the semicircular canals relative to the axis of rotation. This produces vertical and horizontal nystagmus, disorientation, vertigo, and nausea. With recurrent exposure, subjects habituate and can make more head movements(More)
The gain of the vertical angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively altered by visual-vestibular mismatch during rotation about an interaural axis, using steps of velocity in three head orientations: upright, left-side down, and right-side down. Gains were decreased by rotating the animal and visual surround in the same direction and increased by(More)
Nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) about a head yaw axis is composed of a yaw bias velocity and modulations in eye position and velocity as the head changes orientation relative to gravity. The bias velocity is dependent on the tilt of the rotational axis relative to gravity and angular head velocity. For axis tilts <15 degrees, bias(More)
The angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) has a fast pathway, which mediates compensatory eye movements, and a slow (velocity storage) pathway, which determines its low frequency characteristics and orients eye velocity toward gravity. We have proposed that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, when its orientation vector, which lies close(More)
Gait and balance disturbances are amongst the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease (PD), and are not adequately controlled with currently available medical and surgical therapies. Development of objective quantitative measures of these abnormalities would greatly help in the assessment and the development of therapeutic interventions. Recently, we(More)
Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were studied in isoflurane-anesthetized Long-Evans rats during sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) and sinusoidal oscillation in pitch to characterize vestibular influences on autonomic control of BP and HR. sGVS was delivered binaurally via Ag/AgCl needle electrodes inserted over the mastoids at(More)