Bernard A. MacLeod

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BACKGROUND The quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 is now known to produce long-lasting local anesthesia despite its positive charge. However, recent research suggests that the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor agonist, capsaicin, should reduce the onset and offset times, whereas the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor(More)
1. Rats were used to evaluate the antiarrhythmic properties of tedisamil, a novel agent with the electrophysiological properties of a Class III antiarrhythmic drug. Tedisamil was tested against coronary artery occlusion-induced arrhythmias in conscious animals. 2. The actions of tedisamil on the ECG, as well as responses to electrical stimulation, were(More)
In this study, 79 patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy were entered into a randomized double-blind controlled trial in which intraarticular bupivacaine (Marcaine), was compared with a saline placebo. Intraarticular bupivacaine was shown to be an effective and safe method of achieving analgesia after arthroscopic meniscectomy.
1 Ligation of a coronary artery was performed in conscious rats whose sympathetic system activity had been altered by various treatments. 2 beta-Adrenoceptor blockade with acute (0.2 mg kg-1 plus 0.1 micrograms kg-1 min-1) or chronic (50-60 mg kg-1 daily for 12 days) propranolol treatment had little effect on arrhythmias, or other responses to ligation. 3(More)
BACKGROUND Isovaline, a nonproteinogenic alpha-amino acid rarely found in the biosphere, is structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Because glycine(A) and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists are antiallodynic, we hypothesized that isovaline produces antinociception in mice. METHODS All(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that the addition of a preincisional femoral 3-in-1 block to intra-articular instillation with ropivacaine 0.2% at the end of surgery improves postoperative pain control in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) under general anesthesia. METHODS In a prospective, randomized,(More)
The effect of prostacyclin (PGI2) on blood pressure and heart rate (in vivo) and on isolated heart tissue has been investigated in different species. Isolated cardiac tissue had limited responses to PGI2 tested at 10(-13) to 10(-5) M. Cultured neonatal rat heart cells did not respond to PGI2, neither did intact rat hearts or rabbit cardiac tissue. Guinea(More)
Peripherally restricted analgesics are desirable to avoid central nervous system (CNS) side effects of opioids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs produce peripheral analgesia but have significant toxicity. GABA(B) receptors represent peripheral targets for analgesia but selective GABA(B) agonists like baclofen cross the blood-brain barrier. Recently, we(More)
A method for ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in conscious rats and measuring the resultant cardiovascular responses, arrhythmias, cardiac tissue loss, electrocardiogram (ECG), and mortality is described. Analyses of such responses identified statistically acceptable measures for which precision and interrelationships were defined.(More)