Bernadine M. Flanagan

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AIMS To determine the effect of carbon sources on cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53524, and to characterize the purity and structural features of the cellulose produced. METHODS AND RESULTS Modified Hestrin Schramm medium containing the carbon sources mannitol, glucose, glycerol, fructose, sucrose or galactose were inoculated(More)
An improved method to analyze the (13)C NMR spectra of native starches, which considers the contribution of the V-type conformation and the nature of the amorphous component, has been developed. Starch spectra are separated into amorphous and ordered subspectra, using intensity at 84 ppm as a reference point. The ordered subspectra of high amylose starches(More)
The inactivation of starch branching IIb (SBEIIb) in rice is traditionally associated with elevated apparent amylose content, increased peak gelatinization temperature, and a decreased proportion of short amylopectin branches. To elucidate further the structural and functional role of this enzyme, the phenotypic effects of down-regulating SBEIIb expression(More)
The nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses (order Mononegavirales) include many important human pathogens. The order of their genes, which is highly conserved, is the major determinant of the relative levels of gene expression, since genes that are close to the single promoter site at the 3' end of the viral genome are transcribed at higher levels than(More)
A peak fitting procedure has been implemented for calculating crystallinity in granular starches. This methodology, widely used for synthetic polymers, is proposed to better reflect the crystalline content of starches than the method normally used, in which it is assumed that relatively perfect crystalline domains are interspersed with amorphous regions.(More)
The aims of this work were to characterize and improve cellulose production by a Gluconoacetobacter xylinus strain isolated from Kombucha and determine the purity and some structural features of the cellulose from this strain. Cellulose yield in tea medium with both black tea and green tea and in Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium under both static and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of immunopurified class I human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) to protect against SIV infection. METHODS HLA class I antigens were immunopurified from a human B-lymphoblastoid cell line. Groups of four macaques were vaccinated subcutaneously with four doses of the immunogen in adjuvant, or with adjuvant alone(More)
The relationships between starch structure and functionality are important in underpinning the industrial and nutritional utilisation of starches. In this work, the relationships between the biosynthesis, structure, molecular organisation and functionality have been examined using a series of defined genotypes in barley with low (<20%), standard (20-30%),(More)
Macaques were immunised with lentil lectin purified recombinant SIVmac (BK28) derived gp160 (rgp160) with or without live vaccinia (vac)-env (BK28) priming, followed by a final boost with solid matrix antibody antigen (SMAA)-gp160 (J5) complexes and challenged with the SIVmac molecularly cloned virus J5M. Rgp160 and vac-env plus gp160 induced strong Ab(More)
Polymerase chain reaction based assays, which amplify a region of the gag gene, have been developed for the direct detection of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA sequences in the blood of experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques. In macaques infected with a characterised virus pool (11/88 pool SIVmac 32H), an assay employing a single round of(More)